2014-2015 Catalog

Biology

http://arts-sciences.und.edu/biology/graduate/programs.cfm

FACULTY: Carmichael, Darby, D. Darland, T. Darland, Ellis-Felege, Goodwin (Chair), Kelsch, Meberg, Newman (Graduate Director), Ovtchinnikov, Pyle, Ralph, Rhen, Schlosser, Sheridan, Simmons, Tkach, Vaughan and Yurkonis

Degrees Granted: Master of Science (M.S.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

The Department of Biology offers graduate studies leading to the Master of Science (thesis and non-thesis options) and Doctor of Philosophy degrees. These programs are designed to prepare students for academic teaching and research, research in government service, research and developmental opportunities in industry, and functioning as a professional biologist.

The Department offers graduate work in the following areas: Cell Biology; Conservation Biology; Developmental Biology; Ecology; Entomology; Fisheries Biology; Genetics and Genomics; Molecular Biology; Neurobiology; Parasitology; Physiology; Plant Biology; Systematics; and Wildlife Management.

Facilities for Graduate Research

The Department of Biology occupies 58,000 sq. ft. in Starcher Hall. This structure houses classrooms, museums, offices, and research laboratories. There are three large rooftop greenhouses with an adjacent preparation area. The animal care facility includes rooms for aquatic organisms, aquatic bird rooms, observation rooms for behavioral study, and a number of rooms for holding small vertebrates. Other departmental research facilities include an herbarium, controlled environmental chambers, vertebrate and invertebrate research museums, plant and animal tissue culture rooms, data analysis facilities, and molecular biology laboratories. Notable recent departmental additions as part of a core Molecular Biology Facility include ultra- and high-speed centrifuges, Microm HM550 cryostat, Bio-Rad Experian microfluidics station, ABI and Bio-Rad real-time PCR systems, Bio-Rad Tetrad multi-block PCR thermocycler, automated DNA sequencer, UVP Autochemi gel documentation system, Nanodrop spectrophotometer, Fluoview Confocal Microscope, and Microbrightfield Instruments design-based stereology system. Highly specialized instruments not presently available in Biology have been made available to our graduate students by other nearby facilities such as the Department of Chemistry, the Medical School, the USDA Human Nutrition Laboratory, and the UND Energy Technology Center.

The Department operates two field stations for research and class use. The Forest River Biology Area is 40 miles from campus and includes 160 acres consisting of spring brook, swamp, moist and dry woods and a section of the Forest River. The Oakville Prairie Field Station consists of approximately 1000 acres of virgin upland and lowland prairie located 12 miles from campus. Oakville Prairie offers rare native tall-grass prairie and saline seeps. Glacial Lake Agassiz receded from the site approximately 9,300 years ago, leaving a series of beach ridges. These ridges have mostly disappeared, but two of the Ojata Beach Ridges remain on the Oakville site along with 8 Saline Seeps (another geological feature not common elsewhere).

The Biology Department has a history of cooperative research involving the management of sport and commercial fisheries and wildlife with state (North Dakota Game and Fish Department, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources) and federal (US Fish and Wildlife Service) agencies.

Details pertaining to admission requirements, degree requirements and courses offered can be found in the Degree section.

Master of Science (M.S.)

Mission Statement and Program Goals

The mission of the Biology Graduate Program is to prepare our students well for careers in teaching and/or research in academics, government or industry, or for further graduate training. We strive for excellence in graduate education, mentorship and research across the breadth of biology, while focusing on strengths in vital sub-disciplines. We provide enriched, forward-looking graduate experiences in the areas of Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology and Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology. We strive to prepare students for the increasingly important integration of biological knowledge across levels of organization from molecules to the environment.

Goal 1: MS Students will demonstrate a broad knowledge and understanding of the major concepts of modern biology across all levels of biological organization from molecules to ecosystems, including the conceptual relationship among these levels of organization, and a deeper understanding of at least one sub-discipline of biology.

Goal 2: As students progress through the MS program at the University of North Dakota, they will exhibit an increasing ability to independently engage in the scientific process to both create and disseminate new knowledge. This will include the ability to:

  1. Clearly and concisely propose a research project that incorporates the most recent body of knowledge in the discipline, critically analyzes accepted and emerging ideas in the discipline, and poses clear objectives and testable hypotheses along with appropriate methods and techniques for testing those hypotheses.
  2. Demonstrate mastery of the technical skills necessary for making observations, gathering and analyzing data, and testing hypotheses in the particular sub-discipline.
  3. Synthesize information and communicate the results of their research clearly and effectively in oral, written and visual form, including publication in peer-reviewed outlets and presentation at professional meetings.

Goal 3: Students will develop and display an understanding of professional ethics in the conduct of research, teaching, and service as scientists.

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Mission Statement and Program Goals

The mission of the Biology Graduate Program is to prepare our students well for careers in teaching and/or research in academics, government or industry. We strive for excellence in graduate education, mentorship and research across the breadth of biology, while focusing on strengths in vital sub-disciplines. We provide enriched, forward-looking graduate experiences in the areas of Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology and Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology. We strive to prepare students for the increasingly important integration of biological knowledge across levels of organization from molecules to the environment.

Goal 1. Ph.D. students will demonstrate a broad knowledge and understanding of the major concepts of modern biology across all levels of biological organization from molecules to ecosystems, including the conceptual relationship among these levels of organization, and exhibit substantial depth of knowledge and ability to evaluate and communicate relevant theories, controversies, and unanswered questions in at least one sub-discipline of biology.

Goal 2. As students progress through the PhD program at the University of North Dakota, they will exhibit an increasing ability to independently engage in the scientific process to both create and disseminate new knowledge. This will include the ability to:

  1. Clearly and concisely propose a research project that incorporates the most recent body of knowledge in the discipline, critically analyzes accepted and emerging ideas in the discipline, and poses clear objectives and testable hypotheses along with appropriate methods and techniques for testing those hypotheses.
  2. Demonstrate mastery of the technical skills necessary for making observations, gathering and analyzing data, and testing hypotheses in the particular sub-discipline.
  3. Synthesize information and communicate the results of their research clearly and effectively in oral, written and visual form, including publication in peer-reviewed outlets and presentation at professional meetings.

Goal 3. Students will develop and display an understanding of professional ethics in the conduct of research, teaching, and service as scientists.

 

Master of Science (M.S.)

Admission Requirements

  1. Must meet current minimum general requirements as published by the School of Graduate Studies.
  2. Must provide GRE General test scores. Strength of scores will be considered regarding admission and awarding of departmental support.
  3. Minimum GPA of at least 2.75 for all undergraduate work or 3.0 for the junior - senior credits.
  4. Students must indicate thesis vs. non-thesis option upon application. M.S. (thesis) students may request a change to M.S. (non-thesis) only within the first two semesters (not including summer) of enrollment. Such requests will be evaluated by the Graduate Director and the student’s advisory commmittee.
  5. Satisfy the School of Graduate Studies’ English Language Proficiency requirements as published in the graduate catalog.

Students admitted to the M.S. program may, after one calendar year, and upon the recommendation of his/her advisory committee, request to by-pass the masters degree and work directly toward the Ph.D. degree. The same GRE and GPA requirements apply for by-pass as for students applying for the doctoral program through normal application procedures, i.e., a GPA no lower than 3.0 for work completed while in the M.S. program. The recommendation of the advisory committee shall be brought to a vote in a faculty meeting. A minimum of one week before such a meeting, the faculty shall be notified that the student’s updated file consisting of the materials used for application to the M.S. program, a transcript of all academic work completed at UND, and any additional materials the student wishes to have considered is available for review.

Students seeking summer or fall admission should complete their applications by February 15. Students seeking spring admission should complete their applications by October 15. Master’s degree applicants should specify interest in either the thesis or non-thesis option. Inquiries should be directed to the Director of Graduate Studies, Biology Department.

Degree Requirements

Students seeking the Master of Science degree at the University of North Dakota must satisfy all general requirements set forth by the School of Graduate Studies as well as particular requirements set forth by the Biology Department. The Master of Science degree program is designed to produce broadly trained biologists for job opportunities or continued graduate study.

Thesis Option

The M.S. degree program with thesis requires the completion of a program of study of at least 30 semester credits beyond the baccalaureate degree. The program of study, prepared with the approval of a three-member faculty advisor committee, includes the following:

  1. A minimum of 30 credits including coursework, research and thesis with research and thesis accounting for no more than 50% of credits.
  2. A minimum of three (3) credits of BIOL 503 Seminar (credits included in 1. above).
  3. A minimum of four (4) credits of BIOL 509 Scientific Writing, (credits included in 1. above). Two credits should be taken while the student is writing their thesis proposal (see below).
  4. Either:
    1. BIOL 470 Biometry (3 credits) and one of BIOL 572 Design of Biological Experiments (1 credit) or BIOL 534 Quantitative Ecology (3 credits) (all credits included in 1. above); or
    2. prior graduate credit in statistical analysis and experimental design if approved by the student’s advisory committee.
  5. Satisfactory completion of an acceptable thesis proposal (written proposal, proposal presentation and proposal defense) evaluated by the student’s advisory committee.
  6. Satisfactory completion of a comprehensive examination administered by the student’s advisory committee; and
  7. Satisfactory completion of an acceptable thesis (written thesis, thesis seminar and thesis defense) evaluated by the student’s advisory committee.

Non-Thesis Option

This degree program is designed for students who wish to obtain broad training in graduate biology without research emphasis. The M.S. non-thesis degree program requires the completion of a program of study of at least 32 semester credits beyond the baccalaureate degree. The program of study prepared with the approval of a faculty supervisor, includes the following:

  1. At minimum of 32 credits of coursework.
  2. A minimum of three (3) credits of BIOL 503 Seminar (credits includes in 1. above).
  3. A minimum of 23 credits in the major (credits included in 1. above).
  4. BIOL 599 Research and BIOL 998 Thesis credits will not count toward the 32 credits.
  5. Satisfactory completion of a comprehensive examination administered by the student’s advisor and two other faculty members selected by the student with the concurrence of the advisor, the faculty members involved and the department chairperson.
  6. Satisfactory completion of an acceptable Independent Study. The Independent Study should be substantial and rigorous and involve a written report and a formal oral presentation to the Department.

 

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

Admission Requirements

  1. Must meet current minimum general requirements as published by the School of Graduate Studies.
  2. May enter the program with a Master’s degree or directly with a Bachelor’s degree.
  3. All applicants seeking admission to the biology graduate program must provide GRE General test scores. Strength of scores will be considered regarding admission and awarding of departmental support.
  4. Minimum GPA of 3.0 for the Master’s degree work. If applying with only an undergraduate degree, must have a minimum GPA of 2.75 for all undergraduate work or 3.0 for junior - senior credits.
  5. Satisfy the School of Graduate Studies’ English Language Proficiency requirements as published in the graduate catalog

Financial Assistance

Financial aid in the form of teaching assistantships, research assistantships, fellowships and internships are available on a competitive basis. Students seeking teaching assistantships should complete their applications by February 15, since most offers for appointments are made beginning in early March. Teaching assistantships are renewable if progress toward the degree and instructional service are satisfactory. Research assistantships may be offered by faculty members for work on specific research projects for nine or twelve month periods.

Degree Requirements

Students seeking the Doctor of Philosophy degree at the University of North Dakota must satisfy all general requirements set forth by the School of Graduate Studies as well as particular requirements set forth by the Biology Department.

The Ph.D. degree program requires the completion of a program of study of at least 90 semester credits beyond the baccalaureate degree. The program of study, prepared with the approval of a five-member faculty advisory committee, includes the following:

  1. A major area of a minimum 90 credits including coursework, research and dissertation structured at the committee’s discretion but with a minimum of 18 semester credits of course work. Work completed in a master’s program may be incorporated into the doctoral program if approved by the student’s advisory committee.
  2. A minor is not required, but each student is expected to show competence in related areas as determined by the student’s faculty advisory committee.
  3. A minimum of five (5) credits on BIOL 503 Seminar (included in 1. above).
  4. A minimum of four (4) credits of BIOL 509 Scientific Writing (credits included in 1. above). Two credits should be taken while the student is writing their thesis proposal (see below). Two credits can be waived at the discretion of the student’s advisory committee for students with a well-written Master’s thesis and at least one first-authored publication in press.
  5. Either:
    1. BIOL 470 Biometry (3 credits) and one of BIOL 572 Design of Biological Experiments (1 credit) or BIOL 534 Quantitative Ecology (3 credits) (all credits included in 1. above); or
    2. prior graduate credit in statistical analysis and experimental design if approved by the student’s advisory committee.
  6. Two scholarly tools. The nature of the scholarly tools shall be determined based upon their importance to the student’s field of research as determined by the student’s advisory committee.
  7. Satisfactory completion of an acceptable dissertation proposal (written proposal, proposal presentation and proposal defense) evaluated by the student’s advisory committee.
  8. Satisfactory completion of a comprehensive examination administered by the student’s advisory committee.
  9. Performance of research suitable for publication in refereed professional journals and satisfactory completion of an acceptable dissertation (written dissertation, dissertation seminar and dissertation defense) based thereon.

Courses

BIOL 503. Seminar. 1 Credit.

Discussion of selected topics in advanced biology, a different topic each semester.

BIOL 505A. Biological Inquiry for Teachers. 3 Credits.

First of general biology course sequence intended for teachers planning to qualify to teach high school biology, or teachers looking to enrich their content knowledge in biology for professional development. Topics will include energy conversion, cell and molecular biology, genetics, physiology, evolution, ecology, and pedagogical issues. May not be used in Ph.D. or Master's programs. Prerequisite: BIOL 505L On demand.

BIOL 505B. Biological Inquiry for Teachers. 3 Credits.

First of general biology course sequence intended for teachers planning to qualify to teach high school biology, or teachers looking to enrich their content knowledge in biology for professional development. Topics will include energy conversion, cell and molecular biology, genetics, physiology, evolution, ecology, and pedagogical issues. May not be used in Ph.D. or Master's programs. Prerequisite: BIOL 505A.

BIOL 505L. Biological Inquiry for Teachers Laboratory. 2 Credits.

This hands-on lab course complements Biol 505 and is intended for teachers planning to enrich their practical skills in biology for professional development. May not be used in Ph.D. or Master's programs. Prerequisite: Must be licensed k-12 teacher.

BIOL 506A. Ecology for Teachers. 3 Credits.

Second of a general biology course sequence intended for teachers planning to qualify to teach high school biology, or teachers looking to enrich their content knowledge in biology for professional development. Topics will include physiological ecology, behavioral ecology, population ecology, community ecology, landscape ecology, geographical ecology, global ecology and pedagogical issues. May not be used in Ph.D. or Master's programs. Prerequisite: BIOL 506L.

BIOL 506B. Ecology for Teachers. 3 Credits.

Second of a general biology course sequence intended for teachers planning to qualify to teach high school biology, or teachers looking to enrich their content knowledge in biology for professional development. Topics will include physiological ecology, behavioral ecology, population ecology, community ecology, landscape ecology, geographical ecology, global ecology and pedagogical issues. May not be used in Ph.D. or Master's programs. Prerequisite: BIOL 506A.

BIOL 506L. Ecology for Teachers Laboratory. 2 Credits.

This hands-on lab course complements Biol 506 and is intended for teachers planning to enrich their practical skills in biology for professional development. May not be used in Ph.D. or Master's programs. Prerequisites: BIOL 505L and BIOL 505B.

BIOL 507A. Cellular and Molecular Biology for Teachers. 3 Credits.

Third of a general biology course sequence intended for teachers planning to qualify to teach high school biology, or teachers looking to enrich their content knowledge in biology for professional development. Topics will include cell, molecular, developmental and evolutionary biology. May not be used in Ph.D. or Master's programs. Prerequisite: BIOL 507L.

BIOL 507B. Cellular and Molecular Biology for Teachers. 3 Credits.

Third of a general biology course sequence intended for teachers planning to qualify to teach high school biology, or teachers looking to enrich their content knowledge in biology for professional development. Topics will include cell, molecular, developmental and evolutionary biology. May not be used in Ph.D. or Master's programs. Prerequisite: BIOL 507A.

BIOL 507L. Cellular and Molecular Biology for Teachers Laboratory. 2 Credits.

This hand-on lab course complements Biol 507 and is intended for teachers planning to enrich their practical skills in biology for professional development. May not be used in Ph.D. or Master's programs. Prerequisite: Must be licensed K-12 teacher.

BIOL 509. Scientific Writing. 2 Credits.

Writing is an essential part of the scientific enterprise. In this course, students will develop their scientific writing skill through readings and discussion on the nature of effective writing, and through critique of writing projects produced by each student. Course can be repeated up to 4 credits for different writing projects. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. F.

BIOL 512. Advanced Evolutionary Analysis. 2 Credits.

This course wil focus on methods that reconstruct evolutionary histories of populations, species and higher-level taxa. The course will also discuss the evolution of specialized traits using appropriate analyses. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. On demand.

BIOL 533. Grassland Ecology. 2 Credits.

Phytogeography, environmental influences, and community dynamics of grassland ecosystems with emphasis on herbage production, ecosystem modeling, and ecological characteristics of major grass species. Prerequisite: BIOL 332 or an equivalent approved by the department.

BIOL 534. Quantitative Ecology. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the methods employed in the study of the ecology of natural populations/communities of plants and animals.

BIOL 535. Physiological Ecology. 3 Credits.

Critical evaluation and synthesis of selected theoretical topics in physiological ecology. Prerequisite: BIOL 442 or consent of instructor. On demand.

BIOL 536. Advanced Population Biology. 3 Credits.

In this course we will examine current thinking on a range of topics in population ecology, population genetics and the links between ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Students will build on background reading by developing their own models of some aspect of population biology (ecological and/or genetic). Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. S, even years.

BIOL 571. Advanced Biometry. 3 Credits.

Advanced topics in the analysis of biological data using statistical software. Prerequisite: An introductory course in statistics.

BIOL 572. Design of Biological Experiments. 1 Credit.

Topics in designing biological experiments including the role of experimentation, inference, sampling, replication, controls, and power analysis. Corequisite: BIOL 470 or consent of instructor. F.

BIOL 590. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Important and current topics in biology not covered by other courses. Repeatable when topics vary. Examples include: Aquaculture, Big Game Biology, Biorhythms, Conservation Biology, Fire Ecology, Molecular Techniques, Plant-Animal Interactions, Sex Determination and Speciation. Prerequisite: Graduate status or upper division status with consent of instructor.

BIOL 592. Directed Studies. 1-4 Credits.

Designed to meet the needs of individual and small groups of students in areas of faculty specialization. May be repeated to a total of 12 credits.

BIOL 593. Advanced Topics in Plant Biology. 1-4 Credits.

Advanced topics in plant biology. Examples include: Plant Development, Plant Biochemistry, and Plant Genetics. Repeatable when topics vary. Prerequisite: Graduate status or upper division status with consent of instructor. On demand.

BIOL 594. Advanced Topics in Genetics. 1-4 Credits.

Advanced topics in genetics. Examples include: Biochemical Genetics, Cytogenetics, and Human Medical and Population Genetics. Repeatable when topics vary. Prerequisite: Graduate status or upper division status with consent of instructor. On demand.

BIOL 595. Advanced Topics in Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation. 1-4 Credits.

Advanced topics in fisheries, wildlife or conservation biology. Examples include: Natural Resource Policy, Waterfowl Biology and Management, and Wetland and Prairie Ecology. Repeatable when topics vary. Prerequisite: Graduate status or upper division status with consent of instructor. On demand.

BIOL 596. Advanced Topics in Parasitology. 1-4 Credits.

Advanced topics in parasitology. Examples include: Arthropod Borne Diseases, Helminthology, Disease Biology, and Medically Important Arthropods. Repeatable when topics vary. Prerequisite: Graduate status or upper division status with consent of instructor. On demand.

BIOL 597. Advanced Topics in Physiology and Development. 1-4 Credits.

Advanced topics in physiology and development. Examples include: Comparative Endocrinology, Vascular Development, Embrionic Physiology, and Neural Physiology. Repeatable when topics vary. Prerequisite: Graduate status or upper division status with consent of instructor. On demand.

BIOL 599. Research. 1-15 Credits.

Intended for students conducting original research in consultation with staff.

BIOL 996. Continuing Enrollment. 1-12 Credits.

BIOL 997. Independent Study. 2 Credits.

BIOL 998. Thesis. 1-9 Credits.

BIOL 999. Dissertation. 1-15 Credits.


Undergraduate Courses for Graduate Credit

BIOL 312. Evolution. 3 Credits.

A study of the processes that have led from the origin of life to the diverse patterns and forms of life observable today Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. S.

BIOL 315. Genetics. 3 Credits.

An introduction to genetics, with emphasis on classical genetic analysis and the biochemistry of gene transmission, expression and regulation. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. F.

BIOL 332. General Ecology. 3 Credits.

An introduction to ecology. Covers the relationship of individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems to their biotic and abiotic environments. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. F.

BIOL 332L. Gen Ecology Lab. 1 Credit.

Field projects and laboratory exercises to complement BIOL 332. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L. Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 332. F.

BIOL 333. Population Biology. 3 Credits.

Principles of population genetics, population ecology, and evolution in plants and animals. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, BIOL 151L, and MATH 102 or higher. S.

BIOL 336. Systematic Botany. 4 Credits.

Structure, classification, and evolution of vascular plants with emphasis on the flora of the Great Plains. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or equivalent approved by the department. F, even years.

BIOL 338. Animal Behavior. 2 Credits.

Studies in animal social behavior. The influences of environmental factors on behavior is emphasized. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. S, even years.

BIOL 341. Cell Biology. 3 Credits.

Description of processes common to life at the cellular level including: biochemical and structural organization, membrane function, motility, signal transduction, growth, division and genetic regulation of the cell. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, BIOL 151L. Prerequisite or corequisite: CHEM 122. S.

BIOL 341L. Cell Biol Lab. 1 Credit.

Laboratory investigation utilizing techniques to study life at the cellular level including chemical composition and characterization, enzyme kinetics, metabolism and microscopy. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, BIOL 151L. Prerequisites or Corequisites: BIOL 341, CHEM 121 and CHEM 122. S.

BIOL 350. Plant Biology. 3 Credits.

Structure and function of plants at the cellular, tissue, and whole plant levels. Topics also include ecological adaptations and plant-derived products. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or permission of instructor. S, odd years.

BIOL 363. Entomology. 4 Credits.

Structure, functions, life history, classification, habits and distribution of insects. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. F, even years.

BIOL 364. Parasitology. 2 Credits.

Classification, structure, functions, and life-cycles of parasites having importance to human, wildlife and veterinary health. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L. F, odd years.

BIOL 364L. Parasitology Laboratory. 2 Credits.

A basic parasitology laboratory to complement BIOL 364. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L. Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 364. F, odd years.

BIOL 369. Histology. 2 Credits.

Microscopical anatomy of vertebrate tissues and organs, with emphasis on man and other mammals. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. S.

BIOL 369L. Histology Lab. 2 Credits.

A basic histology laboratory to complement BIOL 369. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 369. S.

BIOL 376. Animal Biology. 3 Credits.

Evolution, morpho-anatomy, development, reproduction and other aspects of the natural history of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Prerequisites: BIOL 150 and BIOL 151. S.

BIOL 378. Developmental Biology. 3 Credits.

An overview of general stages and mechanisms of development, experimental approaches used to study developmental processes, and genetic and environmental influences that govern development. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, BIOL 151L, BIOL 315 and BIOL 341. F.

BIOL 410. Molecular Biology Techniques. 4 Credits.

Applications of DNA and RNA analysis and recombinant DNA technologies, emphasizing practical experience in the laboratory. This class will meet twice a week for 50 minutes in the classroom, and students will be expected to work approximately 4-6 hours a week in the lab during open lab times. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisite: BIOL 315 is recommended. F,S.

BIOL 415. Genomics. 4 Credits.

Genomics describes the determination of the complete nucleotide sequence of an organism and subsequent analyses to decode the structural and functional information of all genes and regulatory sequences in the genome. This four-credit course will consist of lectures, computer lab sessions, in-class exercises, take-home assignments, student presentations, and discusson of research articles. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, BIOL 151L and BIOL 315. S.

BIOL 425. Ichthyology. 3 Credits.

Structure and function, anatomy, physiology, behavior, classification, distribution and ecologic aspects of fishes. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. F, even years.

BIOL 426. Birds & Mammals. 4 Credits.

Birds and Mammals is designed to familiarize students with avian and mammalian biology, including anatomy and physiology, behavior, ecology, evolution and conservation. Lab exercises will be integrated with lecture to emphasize taxonomy and identification. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L. S.

BIOL 431. Wildlife Management. 3 Credits.

Theory and methods of management of game populations. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. F, odd years.

BIOL 432. Techniques in Wildlife Population Assessment. 3 Credits.

Techniques in Wildlife Population Assessment is a course designed to teach wildlife biology students the techniques used to assess wildlife populations for conservation and management. Students learn the appropriate situations to use the techniques, how to properly conduct the procedures, how to collect data from the use of these techniques, and how to report the findings to a variety of audiences. The structure of the course is designed to teach students proper research methodology so that they not only know how and when to use the techniques, but also how they can apply their findings to make appropriate management recommendations for wildlife conservation and management under a variety of settings or conditions. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L. F, even years.

BIOL 433. Aquatic Ecology. 3 Credits.

Analysis of the relationships between organisms and their physical, chemical and biological environments in freshwater ecosystems. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. S, odd years.

BIOL 438. Fisheries Management. 3 Credits.

Concepts and approaches to the management of freshwater fisheries. Course will include discussion of life histories and requirements of important regional sport fishes. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or an equivalent approved by the department. S.

BIOL 439. Conservation Biology. 3 Credits.

A course that integrates information from the disciplines of ecology, genetics, biogeography, economics, environmental policy, and ethics towards understanding how to maintain and restore biological diversity. F, odd years.

BIOL 442. Physiology of Organs and Systems. 3 Credits.

Study of the physiology of organs and organ systems in vertebrates. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, BIOL 151L, and Junior or Senior standing or an equivalent approved by the department. F.

BIOL 442L. Physiology of Organs and Systems Laboratory. 1 Credit.

A physiology laboratory to complement BIOL 442. Counts as an upper-division laboratory course. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or and equivalent approved by the department. Prerequisite or Corequisite: BIOL 442. F.

BIOL 450. Molecular Genetics. 2 Credits.

Topics will include basic molecular genetic mechanisms, recombinant DNA technology, the organization and function of the cell nucleus, and the molecular control of gene expression. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, BIOL 151L, and BIOL 315 or and equivalent approved by the department. S.

BIOL 470. Biometry. 3 Credits.

Analysis of biological data. Covers descriptive statistics, inferential statistics (e.g., t-tests, goodness-of-fit tests, regression, ANOVA and non-parametric tests), and interpreting and presenting statistical results. Prerequisites: BIOL 150, BIOL 150L, BIOL 151, and BIOL 151L or and equivalent approved by the department. F.

Office of the Registrar

Tel: 701.777.2711
1.800.CALL.UND
Fax: 701.777.2696

Twamley Hall Room 201
264 Centennial Drive Stop 8382
Grand Forks, ND 58202-8382