2014-2015 Catalog



FACULTY: Anderson, Bjerke, Bridewell, Drechsel, Higgins, Jensen, Kenville (Graduate Program Director), Lindseth, Lovelace, Petros, Robertson, Smith, Ullrich, Venhuizen and Watson

Degree Granted: Master of Science (M.S.)

The Aviation Department offers a graduate program leading to the Master of Science degree. The M.S. in Aviation degree provides the necessary educational background for aviation industry professionals to solve problems within the field of aviation including the airlines, corporate aviation, general aviation, and airport management. Graduates will gain an understanding of the various complexities facing the industry through a breadth of aviation industry related courses. In addition, graduates will gain an understanding of statistics and research methods, and how they may be applied to research and solving problems within the aviation industry. The program will provide graduates with the knowledge and skills that prepare them for the aviation industry, aviation related government positions and for further research and development in the field of aviation.

Details pertaining to admission requirements, degree requirements and courses offered can be found in the Degree section.

Master of Science (M.S.)

Mission Statement and Program Goals

The mission of the Aviation Department graduate program is to provide quality educational experiences to students that promote critical thinking and foster an intellectual environment conducive to exemplary research, scholarship and creativity among graduate students and faculty in an effort to provide problem-solving professionals to aviation industry employers.

Goal 1: Develop aviation professionals who use their technical and theoretical skills to solve problems within the aviation industry.

Goal 2: Develop a student’s higher-order thinking abilities and instill a quest for lifelong learning.

Goal 3: Develop a scholarly set of skills that will allow the student to function in a professional manner.

Goal 4: Students will be able to write at an advanced level.

Goal 5: Students will be able to effectively present their ideas using a variety of media.

Goal 6: Students will be able to critically think, analyze and evaluate all types of information available in today’s global society.

Aerospace Sciences


FACULTY: (Avit) Anderson, Bjerke, Bridewell, Drechsel, Higgins, Jensen, Kenville (Graduate Program Director), Lindseth, Petros, Robertson, Smith, Ullrich, Venhuizen and Watson

FACULTY: (SpSt) Casler, Fevig (Graduate Program Director), Gaffey, Hardersen, Rygalov, Seelan (Chair) and Whalen

Aerospace Sciences Degree (Ph.D.)

Mission Statement and Program Goals

The mission of the Aerospace Sciences Ph.D. program is to provide interdisciplinary teaching and research at the highest academic levels. The goal is to provide highly educated scholars and leaders with the skills necessary to mix technology and science with an understanding of the politics and economics of the aerospace fields.

  1. Students will develop a thorough knowledge of the aerospace elements specifically related to the Aviation and Space Studies disciplines that will allow them to be successful leaders in the industry by applying solutions gained through theory and applied research.
  2. Students will enhance their analytical, technical, research and communication skills through classroom and research activities to further develop an ability to carry out independent, original and applied research.
  3. Students will further develop the critical skill set needed to enable them to fill leadership roles within government and research agencies, educational institutions or private aerospace and aviation sector companies.


Master of Science (M.S.)

Admission Requirements

The applicant must meet the School of Graduate Studies’ current minimum general admission requirements as published in the graduate catalog.

  1. Bachelor’s degree in Aviation/Aeronautics or Bachelor’s degree from an accredited institution--a minimum of 20 semester credits of appropriate aviation related undergraduate work.
  2. Graduate Record Examination, General Test.
  3. Overall undergraduate GPA of 2.75 or a GPA of at least 3.00 for the last two years of undergraduate work.
  4. Aviation industry experience, which can include any Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certificates (pilot, mechanic, air traffic, dispatch, ground, etc.) or applied aviation industry knowledge.
  5. Students must submit a 2-3 page paper answering specific questions per departmental guidelines. One of the questions will address the potential thesis or independent study topic. Students that do not possess an FAA certificate must submit a 2-3 page paper/resume outlining their aviation industry experience.
  6. Satisfy the School of Graduate Studies’ English Language Proficiency requirements as published in the graduate catalog.

Degree Requirements

  1. Required Core Courses are as follows:
  2. A minimum of 30 credits including the 4-credit thesis option, or a minimum of 32 credit hours including comprehensive exams and the 2-credit independent study option. Approval of the thesis option will be granted based upon alignment of research interest with departmental faculty’s research interests and faculty availability.
  3. Comprehensive exams are required for those choosing the Independent Study option.
  4. Courses 510 – 590 should be taken after the required “core” courses are completed.
  5. Follow the Graduate Catalog and Graduate Student Handbook, Master’s Degree for completion of:
    1. Program of Study
    2. Advisor Selection
    3. Independent Study/Thesis Option
    4. Topic Proposal
  6. AVIT 590 Aviation Seminar and AVIT 593 Individual Research in Aviation can be taken with permission from a sponsoring faculty member.
  7. Must have an overall Grade Point Average (GPA) of 3.0
  8. In addition to the required core courses, students will have selected elective courses or from other UND-approved graduate courses from the following list to complete the degree:
  9. AVIT 510Aviation Public Policy and Regulations3
    AVIT 511Aviation Information Technology3
    AVIT 512Aviation Environmental Issues3
    AVIT 513Aviation Safety Management Systems3
    AVIT 514Aviation Management Theory3
    AVIT 515Human Factors: Human Perceptions in Information Systems Design3
    AVIT 516Training System Design3
    AVIT 517Airline Labor Relations and Law3
    AVIT 518Human Error3
    AVIT 520Strategic Airport Planning3
    AVIT 521Ethics in Aerospace3
    AVIT 587Supervised Field Work3
    AVIT 590Aviation Seminar1-3
    AVIT 591Readings in Aviation1-3
    AVIT 593Individual Research in Aviation1-3

Domestic Air Law Specialization

The Master of Science program currently offers an area of specialization in Domestic Air Law in collaboration with the UND School of Law. In order to receive this specialization, the student must:

  1. Be fully admitted to the UND School of Graduate Studies and be in good academic standing in the MS-Aviation program;
  2. Have completed AVIT 501 General Issues in Aviation/Aerospace, AVIT 502 Aviation Economics and AVIT 503 Statistics and be in their second year of the MS-Avit program;
  3. Receive permission from the Aviation Graduate Program Director;
  4. Successfully complete 9 credits of coursework in the UND School of Law including:
    1. LAW 210 , and;
    2. 6 credits from the following:
    3. LAW 2123
      LAW 2143
      LAW 2633
      LAW 2822
      LAW 2911-4
      LAW 2992



Aerospace Sciences Degree (Ph.D.)

Admission Requirements

The applicant must meet The School of Graduate Studies’ current minimum general admission requirements as published in the graduate catalog. All elements must be complete by the published application date. The additional requirements for admission to the Aerospace Sciences Ph.D. program are as follows:

  1. A Master’s or graduate degree from an accredited institution with a GPA of at least 3.25/4.0
  2. Submission of a statement of personal goals
  3. Professional resume
  4. Satisfy the School of Graduate Studies English Language Proficiency requirements as published in the graduate catalog.
  5. The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Exam
  6. Industry experience preferred

Financial Assistance

Financial aid in the form of teaching, research or service assistantships and tuition waivers are available from a variety of internal and external sources and are awarded on a competitive basis. These appointments are renewable if students are making satisfactory progress toward the degree and their work is satisfactory. Applications for funding opportunities should coincide with the program application date.

Degree Requirements

  • Ninety credits beyond a baccalaureate degree. With approval of the Aerospace Sciences Ph.D. Program and the UND School of Graduate Studies, up to thirty credits from a master’s degree from an accredited institution can be applied toward the requirements of the doctoral degree.
  • Successful completion of sixty semester credits beyond the master’s degree
  • Successful completion of qualifying exam prior to advancement to candidacy
  • Twelve to eighteen semester credits of dissertation (AVIT 999 Dissertation or SPST 999 Dissertation) and successful defense of the dissertation
  • Required core courses AVIT 501 General Issues in Aviation/Aerospace, SPST 501 Survey of Space Studies I, AVIT 521 Ethics in Aerospace and AVIT 590 Aviation Seminar/SPST 590 Space Studies Colloquium
  • Six to twelve semester credits of Scholarly Tools beyond the Master’s degree requirements
  • Remaining coursework from Aviation/Space Studies or other UND approved Graduate Courses
  • Residency requirement: as determined by student’s advisor and/or committee, at a minimum the student will be required to be on campus for one week per year.

There are four required core courses, in addition to the Scholarly Tools component. These courses may have been part of the student’s MS program and cannot be counted twice.

  1. AVIT 501 General Issues in Aviation/Aerospace
  2. SPST 501 Survey of Space Studies I
  3. AVIT 521 Ethics in Aerospace
  4. AVIT 590 Aviation Seminar/SPST 590 Space Studies Colloquium: (2 semesters, 2-4 credits total)

The Scholarly Tools requirement is 6 to 12 semester credits, to be determined by the student’s advisor and/or committee, from the courses listed below. These courses are in addition to what may transfer as part of the student’s Master’s degree program. Therefore, a minimum of six credits will be required as part of the PhD program.

Course Designations (SPST)

Social area courses:
SPST 450International Space Programs3
SPST 540Space Economics and Commerce3
SPST 541Management of Space Enterprises3
SPST 545Space and the Environment3
SPST 551History of the Space Age3
SPST 552History of Astronomy and Cosmology3
SPST 555Military Space Programs3
SPST 560Space Politics and Policy3
SPST 561Public Administration of Space Technology3
SPST 565Space Law3
SPST 574Remote Sensing in Developing Countries3
SPST 575Remote Sensing Law and Policy3
SPST 581Field Visit to Space Centers1-3
Technical area courses:
SPST 405Space Mission Design3
SPST 406
SPST 407
SPST 408
SPST 410Life Support Systems3
SPST 425Observational Astronomy3
SPST 430Earth System Science3
SPST 435Global Change3
SPST 441
SPST 460Life in the Universe3
SPST 500Introduction to Orbital Mechanics3
SPST 505Spacecraft Systems Engineering3
SPST 506Advanced Orbital Mechanics3
SPST 512Human Performance in Extreme Environments3
SPST 515Human Factors in Space3
SPST 519Closed Ecological Systems for Life Support3
SPST 520Asteroids, Meteorites and Comets3
SPST 521The Planet Mars3
SPST 522Remote Sensing Principles3
SPST 523Remote Sensing Applications3
SPST 524Current Topics in Astrobiology3
SPST 525Technical Issues in Space1-3
SPST 526Advanced Observational Astronomy3
SPST 527Extraterrestrial Resources3
SPST 528Space Environment and the Sun3
SPST 570Advanced Topics in Space Studies (may count towards either social or technical area depending on the contents.)1-3

AVIT Courses

AVIT 501. General Issues in Aviation/Aerospace. 3 Credits.

This course is designed to introduce students to graduate school, library resources, and faculty research interests. This course explores the historical, current and future issues related to the aerospace industry.

AVIT 502. Aviation Economics. 3 Credits.

An in-depth examination of the economic aspects of the air transportation industry, with microeconomic analysis applied to decision making in the airline, general and corporate aviation, and airports. Topics include: basic economics of air transport supply and demand; demand forecasting; cost drivers; yield, revenue and capacity management; regulatory issues; political influences; and unique economic characters of international commercial aviation.

AVIT 503. Statistics. 3 Credits.

This course is an in-depth study of inferential statistics with emphasis on the analysis of variance models and subsequent comparison procedures. In addition, the course will include coverage of correlation and multiple regression techniques as data analytic tools. Also, coverage of survey construction and analysis of survey data will be presented. Course content will be presented within the context of aviation and psychology examples. (Psychology 541: Advanced Univariate Statistics can be substituted for AVIT 503). Prerequisite: An introductory statistics course or calculus course.

AVIT 504. Research Methods. 3 Credits.

Methods and procedures of development, design and analysis related to aviation industry research. Topics include problem identification, review of literature, research design, and data analysis. This course is desgned to give an overview of quantitative, qualitative and mixed-method approaches research design. The course includes the experience of critically evaluating research projects and developing a research project based on the principles discussed in class. Prerequisites: AVIT 501, and AVIT 503 or PSYC 541. F.

AVIT 505. Qualitative Research Methods. 3 Credits.

Examination and analysis of qualitative research design with particular emphasis on approaches relevant to problems in Aerospace Studies or related fields. Students will design a qualitative research project.

AVIT 506. Quantitative Research Methods. 3 Credits.

The purpose of this course is to provide students the opportunity to acquire knowledge and skills necessary to apply quantitative research methods in research. Students will design a quantitative research project. Prerequisite: A graduate level Statistics course.

AVIT 507. Advanced Research Methods. 3 Credits.

This course will be a thorough discussion of the different methodologies utilized in theoretical and applied research. Experimental and quasi-experimental design, and topical areas of survey methodology data mining, simulations, and techniques for dissertation designs. Prerequisites: AVIT 503, AVIT 505, and AVIT 506.

AVIT 510. Aviation Public Policy and Regulations. 3 Credits.

A discussion of the initiation, formulation and implementation of aviation public policies and their effects upon the various segments of the aviation industry. Various regulatory areas such as scheduled air carriers, general aviation, airport operations, air traffic control and international agreements will be analyzed.

AVIT 511. Aviation Information Technology. 3 Credits.

This course is an introduction to information systems essential to an aviation business professional. It will provide an overview of current and emerging technologies in various database, data communication and e-commerce systems.

AVIT 512. Aviation Environmental Issues. 3 Credits.

This course examines current environmental issues within the aviation industry in the context of historical environmentalism, current laws and regulations, and emerging research findings. A broad survey of earth systems precedes a focused examination of contemporary aviation environmental issues.

AVIT 513. Aviation Safety Management Systems. 3 Credits.

An in-depth study of aviation safety management concepts and principles as they relate to effective safety programs within the airlines, corporate aviation, general aviation and airports.

AVIT 514. Aviation Management Theory. 3 Credits.

An in-depth review of organizations in the aviation industry, their structures, environments and leadership as it relates to human behavior. Topics include organizational design, climate and the interactions with individuals, groups, and different organizational structures within the airline, general aviation, corporate aviation and airport organizations.

AVIT 515. Human Factors: Human Perceptions in Information Systems Design. 3 Credits.

Human perception and information processing will be discussed in relation to information system design requirements to optimize human performance. Topics include information systems design with regard to compatibility, perception, attention, situation awareness and decision processes. Applications to current workstation design will allow students to have a greater understanding of human centered design goals.

AVIT 516. Training System Design. 3 Credits.

The process of memory, learning, and judgment will be related to instructional design strategies in the aviation industry, where heavy use of simulation is used in the training and evaluation of aviation professionals. Topics include instructional design and assessment concepts, simulation design and decision making skills. Class presentations include operational problem-solving group work as well as research paper reviews.

AVIT 517. Airline Labor Relations and Law. 3 Credits.

This course will examine the impact and application of the Railway Labor Act as it pertains to airline operations. Topics of study will include labor history; organization; alternative dispute resolution, collective bargaining, including interest-based practices; and emerging labor trends.

AVIT 518. Human Error. 3 Credits.

The objective of this course is to develop a deeper understanding of the human error and its impact upon human performance in variety of fields. Prerequisite: Graduate Admission. S.

AVIT 520. Strategic Airport Planning. 3 Credits.

This course will explore the elements of airport planning within the public administration domain. Emphasis will be placed on individual airport's strategic plans, how airports operate efficiently ad effectively with changing regulations and economic fluctuations in the global marketplace.

AVIT 521. Ethics in Aerospace. 3 Credits.

The course will introduce ethical concepts and frameworks used in professional decision-making. Students will engage with faculty and outside speakers to weigh decisions in the applicable ethical frameworks. Students participation will include graded elements of formal case presentations, class discussion sessions, essay examinations and review of scholarly and trade journal articles. The course will have a strong emphasis on research project design to assess dynamics of ethical decision-making in different populations, as well as exploring educational opportunities in the aerospace industry.

AVIT 587. Supervised Field Work. 1-3 Credits.

Used primarily for individualized field placement so that the student may acquire practical experiences in the aviation industry. May be repeated for up to 6 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of graduate director.

AVIT 590. Aviation Seminar. 1-3 Credits.

A series of lectures presented by visiting lecturers and the faculty. May be repeated for up to 4 credits.

AVIT 591. Readings in Aviation. 1-3 Credits.

Readings in selected Aerospace Studies topics, with written and/or oral reports. Repeatable to a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

AVIT 593. Individual Research in Aviation. 1-3 Credits.

Individual student projects designed to develop advanced knowledge in a specific area of expertise. A written report is required. May be repeated for up to 6 credits for Master's and up to 12 credits for Ph.D.

AVIT 595. Aviation Capstone. 3 Credits.

The Capstone course integrates, extends and applies knowledge learned in earlier Aviation courses and research projects. The course also undertakes an in-depth study of management theories relevant to the aviation industry and how leaders apply these theories in practice. Students will have the opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and leadership abilities by working in teams to design and develop a solution to a current aviation problem, which will be assigned by the instructor. This effort will culminate in an on-campus presentation to the faculty and invited industry experts. Prerequisite: AVIT 504 or permission of instructor.

AVIT 996. Continuing Enrollment. 1-12 Credits.

AVIT 997. Independent Study. 2 Credits.

Independent study and preparation of a written report for students taking the non-thesis option in the Master's program.

AVIT 998. Thesis. 4 Credits.

Preparation and defense of a thesis based on original research. Prerequisite: Admission committee approval and consent of instructor.

AVIT 999. Dissertation. 1-12 Credits.

An original research project approved by and completed under the supervision of a dissertation committee. Prerequisites: Graduate standing, approval, completion, and defense of dissertation proposal.

SPST Courses

SPST 500. Introduction to Orbital Mechanics. 3 Credits.

This course introduces students without much background in either mathematics or physics to the problems faced everyday by orbital analysts as they track the 7000 satellites which orbit the earth. The course gives the students an ability to converse, as managers and co-workers, with those individuals who are calculating these difficult orbits. This appreciation is important in both the civilian and military sides of the space program. Prerequisite: SPST 200 for undergraduate students and SPST 501 for graduate students.

SPST 501. Survey of Space Studies I. 3 Credits.

A broad, multidisciplinary survey of human and robotic exploration of space. The course will introduce the student to the key policy, history, military, economic, management, planetary science, life science, and engineering issues that characterize today's space ventures. Emphasis is on building up the fundamental knowledge base that will form the basis for interdisciplinary analysis later in the program. While focus is on the U.S. space program, international space activities are prominently featured in terms of cooperation and competition for the United States. SPST 501 is a prerequisite/co-requisite to all other 500 level courses and should be taken at the first available opportunity.

SPST 502. Survey of Space Studies II. 3 Credits.

Readings, discussion and integrative analysis of past and current issues in Space Studies. Emphasis is on a case study approach to develop an interdisciplinary understanding of space programs and initiatives. An individual project will build integrative and critical analysis skills and an appreciation for the interdisciplinary approach, while a team project will engender the interdisciplinary team work typical of the real world. Must be taken only after completing SPST 501 and at least two other courses in the program. Prerequisite: SPST 501.

SPST 505. Spacecraft Systems Engineering. 3 Credits.

This course will guide the students through the spacecraft design and proposal process for an actual mission. In this course the students will work in teams on individual spacecraft subsystems, participate in an engineering design review, and create a document which can be submitted for funding for a small satellite project. Lectures will provide an overview of the separate spacecraft subsystems involved in a typical mission, the systems engineering approach to spacecraft development, and the grant writing process. Distance students will interact with on-campus students via conferencing software. Prerequisite: SPST 405 or consent of instructor.

SPST 506. Advanced Orbital Mechanics. 3 Credits.

This course provides a working knowledge of the field of orbital mechanics including the use of appropriate mathematical and computational techniques, the analysis of professional papers in orbital mechanics, and applying the appropriate techniques to solve orbital mechanics problems. Topics covered include orbital elements, perturbations, coordinate systems, orbit determination, and multi-body gravitational problems. Prerequisites: SPST 500 and MATH 266 or equivalent.

SPST 512. Human Performance in Extreme Environments. 3 Credits.

This course introduces the area of human performance in extreme environments, highlights differences and similarities between extreme environments, and demonstrates the lessons learned from one extreme environment can be effectively applied to others--though settings like space, mountains, or the ocean's depths, etc. pose unique characteristics, the human physiological and psychological reactions and adaptations to these extreme settings stay similar.

SPST 515. Human Factors in Space. 3 Credits.

A review of the major stresses experienced by humans on entering the new and alien environment of space. Examples will be taken from the psychological and physiological impacts experienced by U.S. and Soviet crews with emphasis on longer flights. How to avoid and/or overcome these stresses will be examined as an essential and growing need in the future development and settlement of the space frontier.

SPST 519. Closed Ecological Systems for Life Support. 3 Credits.

Closed ecological systems have been suggested during the early decades of space exploration for extended life support in space operations. In reality, this principle of long-term life support mimics global biogeochemical cycles supporting life on Earth. The course covers the multiple interactions of human/bioregenerative life support based on physical/chemical regeneration (hybrid) life support environments. Extensive research in this area during more than five decades showed that material turnover in small closed environments becomes unstable compared to a planetary environment. Specific attention is paid to the limits of stability for closed material cycles functioning during long-term remote confined missions; and the importance of the human factor as a target link, main sensor, and main integrator and control element for the system providing significant self-sustainability under proper motivation. Advanced scenarios for space life support based on ecological and in situ resource utilization approaches are discussed. Prerequisite: SPST 501 or instructor consent.

SPST 520. Asteroids, Meteorites and Comets. 3 Credits.

The small bodies of the solar system are clues to its origin. All planets and larger moons have been chemically transferred, but many asteroids, meteorites and comets are apparently little modified from the time of their origin 4.5 billion years ago. Each of these classes of objects is investigated separately, and relationships between them are examined. Prerequisite: SPST 501 or permission of instructor.

SPST 521. The Planet Mars. 3 Credits.

This course provides an in-depth review of the present state of our knowledge of Mars. Topics to be covered include: the origin and evolution of the planet, the surface geology and geological processes, the geophysical properties of the Martian interior, the origin and evolution of the Martian atmosphere, the present and past climates of Mars, the Martian moons, and the possibility of past or present life on Mars. The American and Soviet/Russian Mars exploration programs are reviewed and the course incorporates the most recent results from spacecraft missions such as Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity Rover). Potential future manned and unmanned missions are also discussed. Prerequisite: SPST 501 or permission of the instructor. F.

SPST 522. Remote Sensing Principles. 3 Credits.

This course covers the basic concepts and foundations of remote sensing, a review of major Earth observing satellite and aircraft platforms, and an investigation of flow of data from satellite to Earth, what it represents, and how to interpret it, using both visual and digital image processing techniques. A field visit to the EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls may also be arranged.

SPST 523. Remote Sensing Applications. 3 Credits.

This course covers the use of advanced image processing algorithms and information extraction techniques for various Earth resource applications such as land cover/land use, environmental change detection, geology, oceanography, agriculture, foresty, rangeland, water resources, urban planning, natural disaster management, etc. Prerequisite: SPST 522.

SPST 524. Current Topics in Astrobiology. 3 Credits.

This is a multi-disciplinary, literature-intensive examination of astrobiology, which is the study of life in the universe. Students will read scientific research and review papers from a variety of disciplines including astronomy, planetary science, chemistry, biology, and geology. Course goals include: developing proficiency at reading/analyzing diverse scientific papers, developing the ability to incorporate knowledge from multiple disciplines in the study of astrobiological research, and developing the ability to effectively write summary papers to show basic understanding of course material. Prerequisites: SPST 460 and SPST 501.

SPST 525. Technical Issues in Space. 1-3 Credits.

An examination of the technological base for the exploration and development of space. An understanding of this technology and of its impact is essential to an understanding of the issues and problems associated with our continuing efforts to explore and settle this new frontier. May be repeated if the topic is different.

SPST 526. Advanced Observational Astronomy. 3 Credits.

This course is a follow-up to SPST 425 and will focus on observational techniques, data reduction, and analysis of astronomical spectroscopic data. The first half of the semester will focus on understanding low-resolution, near-infrared spectroscopic data as it relates to observations of atmosphere-less terrestrial objects, such as asteroids, and the identification of the major surface mineral phases that aide in understanding the geologic nature of each asteroid. Students will also learn about minerals and meteorites, their laboratory spectra, and chemistry. Students will reduce and analyze asteroid data obtained from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) in Hawaii. The second half of the course will study visible-wavelength stellar spectroscopic data and its acquisition, reduction, and analysis. The physics of stars will be reviewed and students will reduce, analyze, and interpret existing stellar data and learn how to classify stars, which is a fundamental effort to understand their basic physical properties. Prerequisites: SPST 425, SPST 501, and MATH 165.

SPST 527. Extraterrestrial Resources. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on the inventory, accessibility, acquisition, processing and utilization of extraterrestrial resources (space resources) from celestial bodies such as the Moon, Mars, asteroids and comets. Consideration will be given to extraterrestrial resources for in situ utilization (such as a Lunar or Martian base), for space operations (such as supporting large scale near-Earth activities or a human Mars mission), and for terrestrial markets. The course will focus on the interplay between the scientific, technical, and economic aspects of acquiring and utilizing such resources. The course will also explore some of the legal and political ramifications and limitations of claiming and recovering space resources. Prerequisite: SPST 501 or SPST 520 or permission of the instructor.

SPST 528. Space Environment and the Sun. 3 Credits.

This course will provide an in-depth study of the science and observations of the Sun, space weather, and effects of the Sun on astronauts, Earth, and the space environment. Topics that will be covered include the solar photosphere and active surface phenomena such as sunspots, flares, and coronal mass ejections; the nature of the quiet Sun; the solar interior and helioseismology; space weather and impact of solar particles on the space environment and Earth; the hazards posed to astronauts by solar eruptions; common techniques of solar observations; and a review of the primary types of solar instrumentation and the observatories that currently study the Sun. Students will be able to observe the Sun using the UND Observatory's small solar telescopes; all students will have the opportunity to analyze solar datasets to aid their understanding of the Sun. Prerequisites: SPST 501 and MATH 165.

SPST 540. Space Economics and Commerce. 3 Credits.

A study of the economic aspects of space activities, with analysis of the possibilities and the barriers. Key areas include launch services, satellite communications, remote sensing, microgravity materials processing, and interaction with the government. Global competition against subsidies or government-sponsored entities is examined. Prerequisite or corequisite: SPST 501.

SPST 541. Management of Space Enterprises. 3 Credits.

This course investigates the management of space organizations. These include organizations that are public and private, R&D and operations, profit and non-profit. You will learn the basics of management theory, the history of systems management, and the technical issues that must be considered in the management of space R&D and operations. Prerequisite or orequisite: SPST 501.

SPST 545. Space and the Environment. 3 Credits.

This course is an advanced graduate-level review of international relations theories as applied to the international implications of global commons. The course introduces the concept of global commons, examines the theories and practices concerning management of global commons, and analyzes the global commons dealing with the problems of collective action as applied to global environmental change and the uses of outer space. Prerequisites: SPST 501 and SPST 430 or SPST 565.

SPST 551. History of the Space Age. 3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the history of human endeavors in space. These include the development of rocketry, the influence of amateur societies and science fiction, the military development of ballistic missiles, and human and robotic spaceflight.

SPST 552. History of Astronomy and Cosmology. 3 Credits.

This course investigates the history of human endeavors to understand the stars, planets, and cosmos as a whole from a scientific perspective. It covers the early observations and theories of the Babylonians and Greeks through the European Scientific Revolution, and finally to the development of astrophysics and modern cosmology using space vehicles. Prerequisites: SPST 501 or consent of instructor.

SPST 555. Military Space Programs. 3 Credits.

An introduction to military uses of space by the United States, Russia, and other nations. The course introduces ballistic missiles, anti-ballistic missile and anti-satellite systems, space-based reconnaissance and intelligence-gathering, communications, navigation, acquisition, and military space treaties. Prerequisite or corequisite: SPST 501.

SPST 560. Space Politics and Policy. 3 Credits.

This course serves as a graduate-level introduction to the field of Public Policy as applied to Space Policy. The course surveys the evolution of Space Policy at several levels of analysis including context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes, and assesses the symbiotic relationship between policy, technology, and science. Prerequisite or corequisite: SPST 501.

SPST 561. Public Administration of Space Technology. 3 Credits.

This course is an advanced graduate-level review of Public Administration theories as applied to the implementation of space technology programs. In this course, the political, organizational, and technical variables that affect the management processes of space organizations are examined. Prerequisites: SPST 501 and SPST 560 or SPST 541.

SPST 565. Space Law. 3 Credits.

This course serves as a graduate-level introduction to the field of Law as applied to Space Law. The course examines the origins and evolution of the laws of outer space from the beginnings of the space age to the present. International laws governing access and use of space, and national laws regulating governmental and commercial activities in space are reviewed and analyzed. Prerequisite or corequisite: SPST 501 or consent of instructor.

SPST 570. Advanced Topics in Space Studies. 1-3 Credits.

Lecture, discussion and readings on advanced topics of current interest. May be repeated if the topic is different.

SPST 574. Remote Sensing in Developing Countries. 3 Credits.

This course will introduce students to remote sensing programs in developing countries and typical remote sensing application areas pertinent to developing countries, such as: potable water, forest fires, vector diseases, environmental degradation, food security, fisheries, floods, droughts, crop pests, etc., with case studies. Prerequisite: SPST 501 or SPST 522 or GEOG 475 or consent of instructor.

SPST 575. Remote Sensing Law and Policy. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on the evolving laws, policies, and institutions that have long-term ramifications for earth observations. Some topics addressed are the United Nations Principles on Remote Sensing; the United Kingdom's 1984 National remote sensing policy; the Montreal Protocol; and, the United States Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992. Ground segment institutions considered are the Landsat Ground Stations Operations Working Group and the Global Land 1-KM AVHRR Project. Remote sensing litigation that has begun to address various applications of remote sensing will also be considered. Cases include Dow vs US and EOSAT vs NASA and NOAA. Corequisite: SPST 501.

SPST 581. Field Visit to Space Centers. 1-3 Credits.

This course will provide a first-hand knowledge of selected space centers in the U.S. and/or abroad through an organized field visit. The field visit will be lead by a space studies faculty and will include prior preparation through readings, class seminars, lectures and written assignments. May be repeated up to a maximum of 3 credits. Prerequisite: SPST 501 or SPST 450 or SPST 574 or permission of instructor.

SPST 590. Space Studies Colloquium. 1 Credit.

A series of lectures presented by visiting lecturers and faculty. May be repeated for up to 2 credits.

SPST 591. Readings in Space Studies. 1-3 Credits.

Readings in selected Space Studies topics, with written and/or oral reports. Repeatable to a maximum of 6 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

SPST 593. Individual Research in Space Studies. 1-3 Credits.

Individual student projects designed to develop advanced knowledge in a specific area of expertise. A written report is required. May be repeated for up to 6 credits for Master's and up to 12 credits for Ph.D.

SPST 595. Space Studies Capstone. 3 Credits.

The capstone course integrates, extends and applies knowledge gained in earlier Space Studies courses and reading. The major component of this course is a collaborative team project inter-relating policy, technology and science. This course is required for distance students who select the non-thesis option and can be taken after completing at least 21 credits in the program, or with the permission of the instructor. The course begins in the fall semester and concludes with a required week-long capstone experience on the UND campus in the spring. Prerequisites: SPST 501 and SPST 502. F.

SPST 996. Continuing Enrollment. 1-12 Credits.

Prerequisite: Department consent.

SPST 997. Independent Study Report. 2 Credits.

Independent study and preparation of a written report for students taking the non-thesis option in the Master's program.

SPST 998. Thesis. 1-6 Credits.

An original research project approved by and completed under the supervision of a thesis committee. Repeatable to 6 credits. Prerequisites: Graduate standing in Space Studies and completion and approval of a thesis proposal (see department for approval).

SPST 999. Dissertation. 12-18 Credits.

An original research project approved by and completed under the supervision of a dissertation committee. Prerequisites: Graduate standing, approval, completion, and defense of dissertation proposal.

Undergraduate Courses for Graduate Credit

SPST 405. Space Mission Design. 3 Credits.

A team design project to develop the requirements for a space mission. The specific mission will vary from time to time. Design teams will work on selected portions of the mission. Accompanying lectures will provide background material. Prerequisite: SPST 200. S.

SPST 410. Life Support Systems. 3 Credits.

A review of the physiological effects of living in space including a discussion of current and near-term life support systems equipment for the provision of oxygen, water, food, and radiation protection. In addition, a review will be made of the issues associated with the development of fully closed ecological life-support systems that will be essential to the long-term development of space. Prerequisite: SPST 200. On demand.

SPST 425. Observational Astronomy. 3 Credits.

This course provides an introduction to observational astronomy and includes three segments: basic observing techniques and astronomical equipment (telescopes, CCDs); visual observing and the characteristics of the night sky; astrometric and photometric observing, data reduction, and interpretations; and image processing and color imaging techniques. Students will learn to operate a remotely controllable Internet telescope and CCD camera. A broadband Internet connection is recommended. Night observing is required. Course fee. Prerequisite: PHYS 110. On demand.

SPST 430. Earth System Science. 3 Credits.

This course begins with a review of the physical sciences of geology, meteorology and oceanography to examine the coupled interactions between the land, atmosphere and oceans. Particular emphasis is placed on remote sensing techniques for global monitoring of biogeochemical processes. The role of human activities on Earth processes and the consequences of global environmental changes are discussed. The growing use of space-based data sets and the implications of Earth Observing System technologies, including research goals and hardware requirements, are examined. Prerequisite: SPST 200. On demand.

SPST 435. Global Change. 3 Credits.

The current human population represents something unprecedented in the history of the world. Never before has one species had such a great impact on the environment in such a short time and continued to increase at such a rapid rate. Human activities are therefore significantly influencing the Earth's environment in many ways in addition to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Anthropogenic changes to Earth's land surfaces, oceans, coasts, and atmosphere and to biological diversity, the water cycle and biogeochemical cycles are clearly identifiable beyond natural variability. This course investigates the many facets of global change issues, and attempts to provide an up-to-date introduction to the study of the Earth's environment. F, even years.

SPST 450. International Space Programs. 3 Credits.

This course will introduce students to the major governmental space programs around the world. The history, activities and future directions of the Russian/Soviet, European/ESA, Chinese, Japanese, Indian and other space programs will be explored. International collaborations between the various programs will also be studied. Prerequisite: SPST 200. On demand.

SPST 460. Life in the Universe. 3 Credits.

This course examines the evolution of the universe from its origin to the present: cosmological evolution, chemical evolution, planetary evolution, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The possibility of life in the universe elsewhere than Earth is considered. Human changes to the Earth are placed within this context. Prerequisite: SPST 200. On demand.

Office of the Registrar

Tel: 701.777.2711
Fax: 701.777.2696

Twamley Hall Room 201
264 Centennial Drive Stop 8382
Grand Forks, ND 58202-8382