2015-2016 Catalog

Education

http://www.und.edu/dept/ehd/

FACULTY: Baker, Barrentine, Beck, Chalmers, Chiasson, De Long, Gallo, Gourneau, Guy, Healy, Helgeson, Holen, S. Hung, W. Hung, C. Hunter, Ingwalson, Jacobson, Johnson, Kallio, Keengwe, LeMire, Mahar, Olson, Onchwari, Ozaki, Pearson, Rice, Rodgers, Salyers, Schnellert, Shafer, Smart, Stonehouse, Stupnisky, Terras, Van Eck, Walker, M. Weaver-Hightower, Worley, Yearwood and Zidon

Graduate programs in education are housed in three departments of the College of Education and Human Development. Faculty in the Departments of Educational Foundations and Research, Educational Leadership, and Teaching and Learning work closely together in design and delivery of the graduate programs described in this section. The department chairs and program coordinators are listed below.

Department Chairpersons

Educational Foundations and ResearchM. Weaver-Hightower
Educational LeadershipB. Kallio
Teaching and LearningM. Baker

Graduate Directors

Early Childhood EducationK. Votava
Curriculum and InstructionJ. Holen
Educational Foundations and ResearchC. Hunter
Educational Leadership PK-12 EmphasisB. Kallio
Elementary EducationB. Gourneau
English Language Learner EducationJ. Shafer
Higher Education (EDL)M. Healy
Instructional Design and TechnologyW. Hung
Reading EducationS. Barrentine
Special EducationL. Chalmers
Teaching and Learning Doctoral ProgramM. Zidon

Graduate programs in education at UND are accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) through 2015, and those leading to teacher licensure or endorsement or to an advanced educator credential are approved by the North Dakota Education Standards and Practices Board and the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction as appropriate.

Design of Graduate Programs: Critical Inquiry

The College of Education and Human Development admits students to advanced programs who are self-directed learners with considerable experience in the practice of education. Viewing knowledge as holistic, interconnected, and never fully defined, we encourage students to define their own programs of study within the framework of critical inquiry.

Critical inquiry begins as students, individually or in groups, identify and seek resolution to problems in education. Students engaged in critical inquiry observe and try to understand differences in proposed resolutions to problems; explore problem situations and the consequences of various resolutions; seek further definition of issues through reading, interaction, research, and creative activity; and further professional abilities consistent with their own understandings of directions for policy and practice in education. Foundational studies in education and the study of research methodologies contribute to student’s ability to engage in critical inquiry.

Goals that inform graduate programs for teachers are drawn from the core propositions of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

Programs Offered

Program Degrees Available
Early Childhood Education M.S.
Educational Foundations & Research Ph.D.
Educational Leadership M.Ed., Ed.S., Ed.D., Ph.D.
Curriculum and Instruction M.S.
Elementary Education M.Ed., M.S.
English Language Learner Education M.Ed.
Higher Education (EDL) M.S., Ed.D., Ph.D.
Instructional Design and Technology M.Ed., M.S.
Reading Education M.Ed., M.S.
Special Education M.Ed., M.S.
Teaching and Learning Ed.D., Ph.D.

Details pertaining to admission requirements, degree requirements and courses offered can be found in each of the departmental sections.

Admissions Process

Success in the graduate study of education is related to qualities of mind, motivation, literacy, and experience. Among the qualities of mind sought in candidates for admission to Education programs are creativity, intelligence, independence of thought, willingness to take risks, openness to new ideas, openness to diversity, and flexibility of thought. Motivation is demonstrated by commitment to learners of all ages, professional growth, self-direction, and commitment to academic study leading to a graduate degree. Literacy is the ability to communicate effectively both orally and in writing. Experience may be demonstrated by diverse activities including work with children or adults in a variety of settings, foreign or domestic travel, and a liberal education. Each student brings a different mix of characteristics and strengths to graduate study.

Within the catalog, each graduate program lists specific admission requirements. Consult the website for up-to-date admissions processes for each program.  Research methods must be selected from approved courses that provide the scholarly tools to support research.

Scholarly Tools

The scholarly tool requirement for the M.S., Ed.S., Ed.D., and Ph.D. degrees is an integral part of the graduate degree program. Since the purpose of the scholarly tool requirement in graduate study is to enable the student to read, understand and conduct research, the tools are to be directly related to the research interests of each graduate student. Achievement levels will be demonstrated by satisfactory completion of coursework in the appropriate scholarly tool area(s) or by a proficiency examination. A minimum of five semester credits in appropriate coursework for the M.S. degree is required.

There is no scholarly tool requirement for the M.Ed. or Ed.S. degrees. For the Ph.D., the minimum scholarly tool requirements of 12 credits may be met by one of the following options:

Option 1: Qualitative emphasis option:

EFR 510Qualitative Research Methods (or equivalents)3
EFR 520Advanced Qualitative Research Methods (or equivalents)3
EFR 516Statistics II (or equivalents)3
Approved Electives (including EFR 514 Discourse Analysis)3
Total Credits12

Option 2: Quantitative emphasis option:

EFR 510Qualitative Research Methods (or equivalents)3
EFR 516Statistics II (or equivalents)3
Select one of the following:3
Advanced Research Methodologies (or equivalents)
Multivariate Analysis (or equivalents)
Research Seminar (or equivalents)
Approved Electives3
Total Credits12

Option 3: Tests and measurements option:

EFR 511Program Evaluation (or equivalents)3
EFR 512Educational Tests and Measurements (or equivalents)3
EFR 516Statistics II (or equivalents)3
EFR 517Advanced Research Methodologies (or equivalents)3
Total Credits12

The student’s advisory committee may approve an exception to these three specializations upon consultation with the research faculty. An appropriate exception would be a different sequence of studies that assures breadth and depth in the research process that is related to both the student’s career goals in research and in regard to the student’s research.

For the Ed.D., the minimum scholarly tool requirements of six credits may be met by one of the following options:

Option 1: Qualitative emphasis option:

EFR 510Qualitative Research Methods (or equivalents)3
EFR 520Advanced Qualitative Research Methods (or equivalents)3
Total Credits6

Option 2: Quantitative emphasis option:

EFR 516Statistics II (or equivalents)3
Select one of the following:3
Advanced Research Methodologies (or equivalents)
Multivariate Analysis (or equivalents)
Research Seminar (or equivalents)
Total Credits6

Option 3: Tests and measurements option:

EFR 511Program Evaluation (or equivalents)3
EFR 512Educational Tests and Measurements (or equivalents)3
Total Credits6

The student’s advisory committee may approve an exception to these three specializations upon consultation with the research faculty. An appropriate exception would be a different sequence of studies that assures breadth and depth in the research process that is related to both the student’s career goals in research and to the student’s research.

Thesis and Independent Study Reports

All master’s degrees and the Ed.S. culminate in a final paper or project. The thesis in the Master of Science degree earns four to six credits. Both the Master of Education and the Master of Science (non-thesis) degrees require a two-credit Independent Study or Final Project instead of a thesis. The Independent Study requirement may be met by completing a formal master’s paper. The Final Project requirement is met by completing a project that demonstrates critical analysis of a topic in a scholarly way and integrates information and experiences gained throughout the program of study. All theses, independent studies, or final projects must be based on an approved proposal. Note that the Department of Educational Leadership may have requirements that differ from those noted above.

Comprehensive Examinations

Master’s and Specialist Diploma students in the Department of Educational Leadership take comprehensive examinations in the semester during which graduation is expected. Candidates take comprehensive examinations after making formal application to receive the Master’s or Specialist’s degree and having been notified of eligibility in writing by the School of Graduate Studies. Students enrolled in the following master’s programs complete a Final Project in lieu of comprehensive exams: Curriculum & Instruction, Early Childhood Education, Elementary Education, English Language Learner Education, Instructional Design and Technology, Reading Education, and Special Education.

Degrees Offered

The Master of Education (M.Ed.) and the Specialist Diploma (Ed.S) focus graduate study on professional practice from a broad educational perspective and admit only licensed educators. Both programs require completion of a final research paper or special project to culminate degree study. Refer to the Degree Requirements section in the programs offering these degrees.

The Master of Science (M.S.) degrees offered in education admit students who are licensed educators and others interested in the study of education. Degree requirements vary according to the background of the student and are described in the section devoted to each program. M.S. degree programs are available with thesis and non-thesis options.  Note that the M.S. in Curriculum & Instruction is available to licensed teachers only.

The Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degrees are designed to prepare persons for leadership in the public schools or other educational agencies and for teaching and administration in colleges or universities. Study at the doctoral level requires that the student demonstrate analytic inquiry and creative scholarship in the study of education. The Ed.D. program focuses on study of professional practice and requires completion of independent work leading to an original dissertation with implications for the practice of education. The Ph.D. program emphasizes educational research and requires completion of independent work leading to an original dissertation focused on educational theory. Refer to the Degree Requirements section of the programs offering these degrees for delineation of requirements for the Doctor of Education and Doctor of Philosophy degrees.

For a complete picture of each degree program, the student is advised to read sections discussing the requirements of the School of Graduate Studies, the requirements of the Education faculty, the pages devoted to discussion of each of the programs offered, and the graduate handbooks available from the dean of the College of Education and Human Development and/or the department.

Graduate Certificate Program in College Teaching

Purpose

This certificate program targets faculty (full-time and adjuncts), as well as graduate students who wish to become professors, college instructors, and academic advisors as well as individuals who are teaching or want to teach in college settings.

Objectives

Students will:

  • gain knowledge of pedagogical approaches
  • experience and demonstrate effective teaching skills
  • connect institutional and departmental missions as well as disciplinary norms
  • foster ethical behaviors and professional standards
  • understand the complexities of the academic profession
  • identify emerging trends in college teaching excellence
  • participate in professional forums as a means to enhance knowledge and practice of effective teaching.

Admission Requirements

  1. Hold a baccalaureate degree from an accredited university
  2. At the baccalaureate level, have earned a cumulative grade point average (GPA) in all courses of at least 3.0 on a 4.0 scale

Program Requirements

T&L 539College Teaching3
T&L 548
  & T&L 545
The Professoriate
   and Adult Learners
6
or T&L 544 Assessment in Higher Education
Select one of the following:1-4
Internship in Education
Special Topics (Motivation)
Special Topics (Students with Special Needs)
Total Credits10-13

For Further Information:

Please contact Dr. Myrna R. Olson, College Certificate Program Coordinator, Department of Teaching and Learning, College of Education and Human Development, Mailstop 7189, 231 Centennial Drive, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202. Telephone: 701-777-3188; Email: myrna.olson@email.und.edu

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Graduate Certificate

Admission Requirements

  1. Online application and fee of $35 (the application fee is waived for McNair Scholars).
  2. One official copy of ALL college and/or university academic transcripts.

ASD Graduate Certificate

Required Courses
SPED 560Introduction to Autistic Spectrum Disorder3
SPED 561Methods for Autistic Spectrum Disorder3
SPED 562Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Supports Across the Lifespan3
SPED 567ASD Assessment3
Elective Courses
Select two of the following:4
Autistic Spectrum Disorder:Medical Issues and Trends
Structured Teaching
Methods for Students with Asperger Syndrome
Autistic Spectrum Disorder Intensive Early Intervention
Internship: Autism Spectrum Disorders
Other courses as approved by the faculty advisor
Total Credits16

Instructional Design and Technology

IDT Certificate Programs

IDT offers three 12-credit certificates. The certificates provide minimum competencies in the field of instructional design within a given subset of the field (technology integration, corporate training, or eLearning). Certificates are intended for those already working in some capacity as an instructional designer but who lack an advanced degree in instructional design. Those seeking the full set of professional competencies of an instructional designer across all areas in preparation for entering the field of instructional design are encouraged to apply to one of the IDT master’s programs instead. Courses taken for a certificate may also be transferred into any of the IDT master’s programs at a later date.

IDT Certificate in K-12 Technology Integration

Required Courses
IDT 520Instructional Systems Analysis and Design3
IDT 525Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Instructional Materials3
Select two of the following:6
Technology-Based Instruction: Applications and Methods
Digital Media and the Internet in Schools
Instructional Simulations and Games
Total Credits12

IDT Certificate in eLearning

Required Courses
IDT 520Instructional Systems Analysis and Design3
IDT 525Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Instructional Materials3
Select two of the following:6
Introduction to Computer-Based Instruction
Instructional Simulations and Games
Introduction to Web-Based Instruction
Total Credits12

IDT Certificate in Corporate Training and Performance

Required Courses
IDT 520Instructional Systems Analysis and Design3
IDT 525Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Instructional Materials3
Select two pf the following:6
Instructional Simulations and Games
Instructional Design Consulting
Human Performance Technology
Total Credits12

Degree Delivery Options

The IDT master’s and certificate programs are available for on-campus and distance delivery, making it possible to attain these degrees via distance delivery, on-campus attendance, or a combination of both. Online students and on-campus students are peers in the same class sessions and experience the same educational opportunities. Courses typically have a few synchronous (live) class sessions, where students may attend on-campus in the actual classroom or they may participate through our distance delivery system. In this manner, class lectures, discussion, presentation, and collaboration are done seamlessly, in a nearly identical fashion to traditional classes.

Asynchronous sessions (those done at the time and place of the students’ choosing each week) are handled through a course management system. Students use these tools to read material loaded by the teacher, turn in assignments, communicate through message boards, participate in discussions through threaded discussion tools, take tests, and receive their grades. There are assignments and participation activities every week, whether the class meets live or not. In this way, students get the best of both worlds: the flexibility of online learning and the personal contact and connection of face-to-face instruction.

Cognate/Minor for Non-Program Majors

The IDT program welcomes graduate students outside of IDT who want to learn more about the integration of technology with instruction. To complete a cognate or minor in IDT, students should take the following courses:

IDT 500Survey of Instructional Design3
IDT 520Instructional Systems Analysis and Design3
IDT 525Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Instructional Materials3
Total Credits9

This will be considered by the IDT faculty to be a cognate or minor at the master’s level. If the student is a doctoral student and his or her department requires more credits for a minor, the IDT program chair will work with the student to select additional coursework to meet that minimum.

EDL Courses

EDL 501. Leadership and Organizational Behavior. 3 Credits.

This course provides school leaders with preparation in skills for providing purpose and direction for individuals and groups, shaping school culture and value, facilitating the development of shared strategic vision for the school, formulating goals and planning change efforts with staff, and setting priorities for one's school in the context of community and district priorities for student and staff needs.

EDL 502. Technology and Information Systems. 2 Credits.

This course provides an understanding of selected computer applications for educational administrators. The focus of instruction is to have educational leaders use the computer as a decision-making and planning tool for carrying out communication functions of administration at the building and district levels.

EDL 503. Seminar Educational Leadership. 1-4 Credits.

Repeatable to 4 credits. Repeatable to 4 credits. S/U grading.

EDL 511. Effective Administrative Communications. 3 Credits.

This course prepares aspiring school leaders to plan for their personal and professional development; understand and use the principles of interpersonal, oral, and written communication.

EDL 512. Research, Measurement, and Program Evaluation. 3 Credits.

This course provides school leaders with an understanding of how to determine what diagnostic information is needed about students, staff, and the school environment; examine the extent to which outcomes meet or exceed defined standards, goals, or priorities for individuals or groups; draw inferences for program revisions; interpret and understand research, measurements, and evaluations; relate programs to desired outcomes; develop equivalent measures of incompetence; and design accountability mechanisms.

EDL 513. Leading Curriculum and Learning. 3 Credits.

This course provides school leaders the ability to understand major curriculum design models, interpret school district curricula, initiate needs analyses, plan and implement with staff a framework for instruction, align curriculum with anticipated outcomes, monitor social and technological developments as they affect curriculum, and adjust content as needs and conditions change. Corequisite: EDL 535 or EDL 536 or EDL 537.

EDL 514. Supervision and Staff Development. 3 Credits.

This course provides school leaders with preparation in skills for instructional improvement, working with faculty and staff to identify professional needs. Classes are designed for in-depth study and practice planning, organizing, and facilitating programs that improve faculty and staff effectiveness and are consistent with institutional goals and needs; supervising individuals and groups; providing feedback on performance; arranging for remedial assistance; engaging faculty and others to plan and participate in recruitment and development activities; and initiating self-development.

EDL 515. Education Law and Ethics. 3 Credits.

This course is designed as a beginning law course for school administrators. In addition to the acquisition of legal knowledge as it relates to P-12 education, students are introduced to ethical perspectives that frequently influence the legal decision-making process.

EDL 516. Education Finance and Policy. 3 Credits.

Includes such topics as the organization of and responsibility for education in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels; basic administrative theories, processes, and techniques; and major areas of concern in the operation of local schools. The course includes an experiential learning assignment in which students complete a budget project.

EDL 517. Social, Cultural, Political, and Community Dimensions of Schools. 4 Credits.

This course provides school leaders with an understanding of the historical, philosophical, ethical, social, and economic influences affecting education to the degree that they can apply their understandings to professional decisions. Students are expected to apply political concepts and strategies and approaches to collaboration in involving the community in decision making, building community support for integrating health and social services in support of students, and developing community support for school priorities. Throughout the course, students' work will be expected to manifest a sensitivity to issues of diversity in a pluralistic society.

EDL 519. Principalship. 2 Credits.

This course provides school leaders with an understanding of the role of the building principal along with skills and techniques associated with the principalship. The topics include the principal's role in community and family relationships and collaboration, using community resources to support the academic and social needs of students and families, the development and application of policies related to students and staff, planning and delivering of curricular and cocurricular programs within the school, and the principal's role in working with staff. Students must also enroll in a one-credit field-based experience (EDL 520, 521 or 522) appropriate for their desired level of preparation for the principalship.

EDL 520. Middle School Principal Field Study. 1 Credit.

This course provides a field-based experience in the role of the middle school principal. Corequisite: EDL 519.

EDL 521. Elementary Principal Field Study. 1 Credit.

This course provides a field-based experience in the role of the elementary school principal. Corequisite: EDL 519.

EDL 522. Secondary Principal Field Study. 1 Credit.

This course provides a field-based experience in the role of the secondary school principal. Corequisite: EDL 519.

EDL 523. The Educational Plant. 3 Credits.

The purpose of this course is to provide a study of the planning, construction, modification, and maintenance of school buildings and complimentary facilities such as playgrounds, athletic fields and facilities, drop-off zones, and parking lots. This course will include appraisal of school facilities and techniques for developing and using input from the community and building and program audits.

EDL 524. Educational Personnel Administration. 2 Credits.

Study of selection, assignment, evaluation, development, and release practices for certified and non-certified school personnel; salary and contract administration in schools.

EDL 526. Business Management in Education. 2 Credits.

Study of the business function in educational organizations with emphasis on budget development and administration, accounting, purchasing, risk management, support services, and capital outlay.

EDL 527. Legal Issues in Education. 3 Credits.

Study of the legal issues affecting educational organizations with emphasis on state and federal relationships to local institutions, school boards and other governing bodies, contracts, teachers' and students' rights, and tort liability of educational organizations and their officers. Consideration is given to legal research and policy analysis.

EDL 529. Special Education Law. 3 Credits.

A course designed to give participants a working knowledge of the legislative, judicial, and administrative changes which have revamped the areas of teaching and administering special education since 1974. It will provide information useful to administrators, practitioners, attorneys, parents, and advocates on topics including: student records, discipline, related services, due process, least restrictive environment, and appropriate education.

EDL 531. School District Leadership. 2 Credits.

A study of concerns and issues related to education leadership and administration at the district level, including relationships between the superintendent and the school board, community and school district staff.

EDL 532. Staff and Program Evaluation. 2 Credits.

A study of the evaluation of staff, including teachers, administrators, support personnel, and boards; and for purposes of accreditation, the evaluation of components that support the curriculum. Procedures, processes, and instruments will be identified and analyzed.

EDL 533. Collective Negotiations. 2 Credits.

A study of the collective bargaining process in the field of education. Includes topics such as contract language, planning for negotiations, bargaining strategies, impasse and arbitration, contract maintenance, grievance procedures, and results of the negotiations.

EDL 535. Administration of Elementary School Curriculum. 1-3 Credits.

Designed primarily for graduate students seeking positions as curriculum coordinators or administrative positions. A study of leadership skills for developing the administrator's understanding of knowledge construction, adult learning, planning and implementing a framework for curriculum design and instruction, and the professional responsibility for assessing and implementation of an elementary curriculum. The course examines the current issues, trends, subject areas, student achievement, and challenges for the future of elementary curriculum. The student will research the current best practices for application of administrative skills in relationship to supervision of a comprehensive K-5 grade level curriculum and its impact on learners. Corequisite: EDL 513.

EDL 536. Administration of Middle School Curriculum. 1-3 Credits.

Designed primarily for graduate students seeking positions as curriculum coordinators or administrative positions. A study of leadership skills for developing the administrator's understanding of knowledge construction, adult learning, planning and implementing a framework for curriculum design and instruction, and the professional responsibility for assessing and implementation of the middle school level curriculum. The course examines the current issues, trends, subject areas, student achievement, and challenges for the future of middle school level curriculum. The student will research the current best practices for application of administrative skills in relationship to supervision of a comprehensive 6-8 grade level curriculum and its impact on learners. Corequisite: EDL 513.

EDL 537. Administration of Secondary School Curriculum. 1-3 Credits.

Designed primarily for graduate students seeking positions as curriculum coordinators or administrative positions. A study of leadership skills for developing the administrator's understanding of knowledge construction, adult learning, planning and implementing a framework for curriculum design and instruction, and the professional responsibility for assessing and implementation of secondary curriculum. The course examines the current issues, trends, subject areas, student achievement, and challenges for the future of middle school level curriculum. The student will research the current best practices for application of administrative skills in relationship to supervision of a comprehensive 9-12 grade level curriculum and its impact on learners. Corequisite: EDL 513.

EDL 538. Auxiliary School Functions. 3 Credits.

Overview of school business and facilities management for educational administrators. Topics include: introduction to special area budgeting and accounting; insurance and risk management; forecasting; vendor relations; supervision of classified and support staff; management of support services, e.g., transportation, food service; facility operation and maintenance; and space utilization analysis, allocation; and cooperative community use of facilities.

EDL 571. School Community Relations. 2 Credits.

Study of the responsibility of classroom, attendance unit, and district personnel in public information efforts; design, use, and analysis of surveys; study of involvement of parents and other community members in resource, advisory, and decision-making activities; preparation of news releases and public information materials; study of relationships to media personnel.

EDL 572. Educational Systems and Planning. 2 Credits.

A study of the planning process including topics such as establishing goals; assessing needs; identifying resources; and generating, analyzing, and selecting alternatives. Processes and techniques in planning will be emphasized.

EDL 573. Administration and Organizational Behavior I. 3 Credits.

A study and critique of selected theories and research in administration and organizational behavior including topics such as leadership; formal and informal structure; communication; change and intervention; motivation and morale; interpersonal relations and conflict management; small-group processes; and personality, values, and ethics.

EDL 574. Administration and Organizational Behavior II. 3 Credits.

A continuation of Administration and Organizational Behavior I. Provides the student with the opportunity to design and carry out an original field study project in organizational behavior, participate in critiquing studies designed and completed by fellow students, and engage in individualized study in a topic area related to behavior in organizations.

EDL 575. Education and Public Policy. 3 Credits.

A study of the development of policy issues, analysis of policy formation, implementation analysis, and structures and actors in policy activity.

EDL 579. Special Topics in Educational Leadership. 1-4 Credits.

Exploration of special topics in the study of educational leadership not regularly included in available course offerings. May be repeated for different topics. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor or advisor. Repeatable.

EDL 589. Superintendency Series. 1 Credit.

Repeatable.

EDL 593. Internship in Educational Leadership. 1-8 Credits.

This is a culminating experience primarily for Specialist Diploma and doctoral students. May be repeated. Prerequisites: Appropriate foundational, cognate, and major area coursework and consent of the advisor and instructor. Repeatable.

EDL 597. Readings in Educational Leadership. 1-4 Credits.

Designed primarily for advanced graduate students. May be repeated for different topics. Prerequisites: Consent of advisor and instructor. Repeatable.

EDL 599. Individual Research in Educational Leadership. 1-4 Credits.

May be repeated. Prerequisites: Consent of advisor and instructor. Repeatable.

EDL 996. Continuing Enrollment. 1-12 Credits.

Repeatable. S/U grading.

EDL 997. Independent Study. 1-4 Credits.

Repeatable to 4 credits.

EDL 998. Thesis. 1-9 Credits.

EDL 999. Dissertation. 1-12 Credits.

Repeatable to 12 credits.

EFR Courses

EFR 500. Foundations of Educational Thought. 3 Credits.

A problem-centered class dialogue on those philosophical, social, political and historical concepts of educational thought that have shaped the development of the learning experience.

EFR 501. Psychological Foundations of Education. 3 Credits.

A study of the learning process with secondary emphasis on how the learning process is affected by individual differences, growth and development, and personality. A background in undergraduate Educational Psychology is assumed. Both theories of learning and theories of instruction are considered. Prerequisites: EFR 500 or consent of instructor.

EFR 502. Issues and Trends in Education. 3 Credits.

Examination of contemporary issues of education and some of the political, social, and historical foundations which influence their development. Prerequisites: EFR 500 or consent of instructor.

EFR 503. Historical Foundations of Education. 3 Credits.

An historical examination of the concepts of the meaning, nature, process, and purposes of education as evolved in different historical periods and social contexts with emphasis on the learners, ideas and changing institutions. Prerequisites: EFR 500 or consent of instructor.

EFR 504. Philosophical Foundations of Education. 3 Credits.

A study of the representative schools of thought which have structured major philosophies of education. Prerequisites: EFR 500 or consent of instructor.

EFR 505. Social Foundations of Education. 3 Credits.

The study of schools and education in social contexts such as community, polity, equity, race, class, gender, and social reproduction. Prerequisites: EFR 500 or consent of instructor.

EFR 506. Multicultural Education. 3 Credits.

A review of the conceptual, historical and theoretical aspects of multicultural education. A major goal will be to provide educators with processes for incorporating multicultural education into educational environments; to meet the needs of culturally diverse students and to increase the cultural awareness and sensitivity of all students. North Dakota/Native American issues are primary elements of this course. Prerequisites: EFR 500 or consent of instructor.

EFR 507. Gender, Sexuality and Education. 3 Credits.

A critical feminist analysis of the history, philosophy, theory, curriculum, and practice of education. The roles of educators, students, society, biology, and policy are considered in the schooling of females, males, and those of diverse sexualities. Prerequisites: EFR 500 or consent of instructor.

EFR 508. Anthropological Foundations of Education. 3 Credits.

Students will examine the convergence of anthropology and education through an analysis of education as cultural transmission and a review of enculturation and acculturation processes in traditional and modern societies. Prerequisites: EFR 500 or consent of instructor.

EFR 509. Introduction to Educational Research. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the research methodologies used to study education. The course covers quantitative as well as qualitative types of research. The paradigms of both types of research will be contrasted and the application of the methodologies in actual research investigated.

EFR 510. Qualitative Research Methods. 3 Credits.

Qualitative research methods are naturalistic and contextual. The methodology derives from Anthropology and other social sciences, and seeks to understand human behavior from the actors' perspective. Students are to learn the fundamental data collection methods: observation, participant observation, and interviewing, as well as data analysis through coding and categorizing.

EFR 511. Program Evaluation. 3 Credits.

An interdisciplinary course which studies the theoretical models of program evaluation as well as professional standards. Emphasis is on the analysis of models for implementation and application in various social and public policy fields, as well as education. S.

EFR 512. Educational Tests and Measurements. 3 Credits.

An introduction to psychological tests and measurements in educational settings and various research environments. The course covers basic concepts and principles in selection, construction, application, and evaluation of educational/psychological tests and measurements. Prerequisites: EFR 515 or consent of instructor. S.

EFR 513. Computer Applications in Educational Statistics. 3 Credits.

A study of computer applications in educational statistics, usually involving relatively large data sets using SPSS and/or SAS. Prerequisite or Corequisite: EFR 515 or consent of instructor.

EFR 514. Discourse Analysis. 3 Credits.

Discourse analysis is a research methodology used to analyze naturally occuring language use, whether in writing or in speech. It draws from and is practiced in many social science and humanities disciplines related to the foundations of education, including linguistics, sociology, anthropology, communications, and cognitive and social psychology. This course will provide students with the building blocks of performing discourse analysis, including instruction in its philosophical foundations, its practices, and its implications.

EFR 515. Statistics I. 3 Credits.

An introduction to basic statistical methods, focusing primarily on descriptive statistics and inferential statistics up to and including two-way analysis of variance.

EFR 516. Statistics II. 3 Credits.

An in-depth study of inferential statistics with primary emphasis on analysis of variance models, multiple regression techniques, analysis of covariance and other higher-order statistical procedures. Prerequisites: EFR 515 or consent of instructor. S,SS.

EFR 517. Advanced Research Methodologies. 3 Credits.

Both qualitative and quantitative aspects of research are considered for a variety of topics, including ethics in research, use of data banks, Q-methodology, survey research, Bayesian concepts, critical theory, longitudinal research and research consultation. Comprehensive examinations in educational research are addressed. This is a capstone course in educational research. Previous or concurrent involvement in research is highly desirable. Available for doctoral level students only.

EFR 518. Multivariate Analysis. 3 Credits.

Multiple regression in generalized problem solving; discriminant analysis, factor analysis, multivariate analysis, canonical analysis, and multivariate analysis of covariance. Students are encouraged to analyze their own data including student-generated computer applications.

EFR 519. Research Seminar. 1-4 Credits.

Experimental Design--An in-depth treatment of analysis of variance designs including factoral designs, treatment by subjects designs, groups within treatment designs, latin squares, higher dimensional designs, mixed effect designs, analysis of covariance, and trend analysis. Emphasis is placed on underlying linear models. Other seminars are held on specific research topics, particularly research proposals. May be repeated. Repeatable.

EFR 520. Advanced Qualitative Research Methods. 3 Credits.

Advanced Qualitative Research Methods will engage students in more in-depth and complex theoretical and practical issues associated with the methodology. Students will conduct mini-research studies and examine qualitative studies conducted by others. Knowledge about IRB requirements will also be addressed. Prerequisites: EFR 510 or consent of instructor.

EFR 522. Mixed-Methods Research. 3 Credits.

Mixed-methods research is the practice of combining quantitative and qualitative analysis within a single study. Students will learn the history and conceptual underpinnings of this methodological practice, read exemplary empirical studies that use mixed-methods, and explore the major mixed-methods designs. To apply these understandings, students will conduct a mixed-methods study on a topic of their own interests. Prerequisites: EFR 510 and EFR 516, or consent of instructor. S.

EFR 523. Structural Equation Modeling. 3 Credits.

This course builds from analyses underpinning structural equation modeling (SEM), such as reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and multiple regression, to SEM topics including path analysis, model specification and identification, goodness of fit, confirmatory factor analysis, structural models, mediation, multiple group invariance testing, and more. To apply these lessons, students will gain skills using SEM software. Prerequisite: EFR 516 or permission of the Instructor. On demand.

EFR 524. Needs Assessment. 3 Credits.

Needs assessment is a common evaluation method. This interdisciplinary course will study the concept of needs as well as the processes and techniques of conducting needs assessment. A set of techniques for implementation and application of needs assessment in various community, education, social work, public health, business/industry settings, government, and non-profit agencies will be reviewed. F.

EFR 525. International and Comparative Education. 3 Credits.

An overview of the major issues, concepts and methods of comparative and international education. Focuses on the development of the field, the uses of comparison, the impact of globalization, and policy and practice development around the world at all levels of education. Prerequisites: EFR 500 or consent of instructor.

EFR 584. Internship in Educational Research. 1-8 Credits.

Practical experience in the conduct of educational research, analyzing data, and writing reports. Available for doctoral level students only. May be repeated. Prerequisites: Appropriate coursework in educational research and consent of the adviser and department chair. Repeatable.

EFR 590. Special Topics in Education. 1-4 Credits.

Exploration of special topics in the study of education not regularly included in available course offerings. May be repeated for different topics. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor or advisor. Repeatable.

EFR 591. Readings in Education. 1-4 Credits.

Designed primarily for advanced graduate students. May be repeated for different topics. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor or advisor. Repeatable.

EFR 592. Individual Research in Education. 1-4 Credits.

May be repeated. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor or advisor. Repeatable.

EFR 995. Scholarly Project. 2 Credits.

The scholarly project demonstrates critical analysis and application of information and experiences gained throughout the program of study. The project allows students to demonstrate scholarly skills in an integrated manner. The scholarly project must be approved by the student's adviser. Prerequisite: Consent of the student's advisor. S/U grading. On demand.

EFR 996. Continuing Enrollment. 1-12 Credits.

Repeatable. S/U grading.

EFR 997. Independent Study M Ed & M S. 2 Credits.

EFR 998. Thesis. 1-9 Credits.

EFR 999. Dissertation. 1-15 Credits.

Repeatable to 15 credits.

HE Courses

HE 500. Higher Education Orientation. 1 Credit.

This course provides an orientation to graduate masters education. S/U grading. On demand.

HE 501. Introduction to Higher Education. 3 Credits.

An overview of administration of America's colleges and universities. Topics include roles of state and federal government, governing boards, institutional organization and culture, types of institutions, faculty, students, research about higher education, and the profession of administrator. On demand.

HE 503. Diversity Across Higher Education. 3 Credits.

The course intends to promote understanding of the diverse populations within higher education and to encourage students to examine their own attitudes regarding diversity and openness to other cultures. Examination of practice models for service delivery to diverse populations will help prepare students to develop management, leadership, and advocacy skills. The course will underscore the development of skills for working with individuals, small groups, and campus groups in relation to equity, diversity, and inclusion. On demand.

HE 505. The College Student. 3 Credits.

This course will examine the theoretical perspectives that describe students' growth throughout the late adolescent and adult life span. The course will look at theory in the areas of intellectual, moral, ego, psychosocial, career, and spiritual development. Further, the course will examine sources of identity including gender, race, culture, ethnicity, and sexual identity. On demand.

HE 507. Collegiate Environments. 3 Credits.

The course will discuss how student characteristics influence student educational and development needs, and the effects of the college experience on student learning and development. This course also will examine collegiate environments and how students' person-environment interactions affect their development. On demand.

HE 509. Higher Education Management. 3 Credits.

This course will examine the administrative functions of higher education including student affairs, academic affairs, institutional advancement, and administrative services. Students will be introduced to professional issues, ethics, standards of practice, and the legal environment. On demand.

HE 511. Program Development. 3 Credits.

This course will examine the learning theories that undergird the design and delivery of educational programs and services. Students will acquire the knowledge and skills needed to conduct needs assessments and outcomes assessments in-person and mediated environments. They will also learn and demonstrate program planning, development and implementation process. On demand.

HE 513. College Students and the Law. 3 Credits.

This course provides an overview of key legal issues that pertain to college students. Using a legal frame and analysis, the focus of the course surrounds administrative decision making, effective practices, and organizational policy design and implementation. On demand.

HE 529. Capstone Seminar. 1 Credit.

Capstone course for students in the Higher Education master's program. S/U grading. On demand.

HE 530. Orientation to Doctoral Study. 1 Credit.

This course provides an orientation to doctoral study . S/U grading. On demand.

HE 532. Principles and Practices in Higher Education. 3 Credits.

This course is designed for students newly admitted to the doctoral program in higher education. It introduces the students to the study of higher education enterprise in terms of its context, research, and practice. Among the topics covered, students in the course will explore the significance of institutional missions and purposes, federal and state governments, and the academic community. On demand.

HE 536. Leading and Learning in Higher Education. 3 Credits.

Colleges and universities are complex organizations with a core purpose of learning. An understanding of organizations, what they are and how they function is critical to success as a higher education professional. Further each member of the organization is called on to provide leadership for the organization in the classroom, the department, and other organizational units. Effective leaders will understand the organization and how their roles and work help support the institution's effectiveness in educating students. On demand.

HE 538. College Student Experiences. 3 Credits.

Given the growing awareness, economically, politically, and socially, of the need for students to succeed in college, faculty, staff, and administrators are increasingly being held accountable for college persistence and completion. A significant factor in students' success is their learning and development. Students in this course will explore concepts and theories related to student learning and development and be challenged to interpret and apply theories to real-world higher education practice, considering how these processes influence student success. On demand.

HE 549. Dissertation Orientation. 2 Credits.

This course introduces students to the dissertation process, focusing specifically on proposal formulation. S/U grading. On demand.

HE 561. Curriculum in Higher Education. 3 Credits.

A study of processes for planning, implementing, and evaluating curriculum within institutions of higher education. Topics will include historical perspectives on curriculum in higher education, governance systems related to curriculum development and adoption, and issues of current interest and concern. On demand.

HE 563. Academic Administration in Higher Education. 3 Credits.

The roles and responsibilities of academic administration in higher education. Topics include the major academic roles (chairperson, dean, chief academic officer), curriculum and instruction, program evaluation, assessment, planning, faculty workload and evaluation, and the profession of administrator. On demand.

HE 564. Higher Education Student and Support Services. 3 Credits.

An overview of the organization and functions of student and support services within institutions of higher education. Students will gain an understanding of the administrative issues related to career services, student counseling, enrollment services, student activities, health services, student organization, and other institutional units, which serve the needs of students at a college or university. On demand.

HE 569. Higher Education Diversity Systems and Policy. 3 Credits.

The course is designed to provide students with a critical understanding of issues of diversity in higher education from an institutional and systematic perspective. Multiple levels and dimensions of diversity will be discussed, including structural, institutional and systematic manifestations of how diversity and equity are historically and currently addressed. Institutional type and role will also be explored. On demand.

HE 570. Higher Education Law. 3 Credits.

An overview of the legal issues that confront college and university personnel. Pertinent federal and state statutes as well as case law will be used to instruct about legal rights and responsibilities of university/college administrators and students. The legal relationships between the institution and the faculty, the student, state government, and the federal government will be explored. On demand.

HE 573. Higher Education and Public Policy. 3 Credits.

The course addresses the development, analysis, and implementation of public policy in postsecondary education and the structures and actors involved in policy activity. The course will also Introduce students to current and ongoing postsecondary public policy issues at the state, national, and international levels. On demand.

HE 576. Higher Education Planning and Finance. 3 Credits.

Higher education must plan to ensure the future of the institution and those plans guide the allocation of resources to accomplish the institutional mission and plan. This course will provide an overview of planning processes and the subsequent allocation of resources to implement the plan. Students will also learn about financial management including budgeting, financial policies and performance metrics. The college administrator's role in guiding the fiscal welfare of an institution of higher education will be explored. On demand.

HE 579. Special Topics in Higher Education. 1-3 Credits.

Exploration of special topics in the study of education not regularly included in available course offerings. May be repeated for different topics . Prerequisite: Consent of instructor or advisor. Repeatable.

HE 591. Practicum in Higher Education. 1-4 Credits.

Students will complete projects to further student learning through course design, teaching, and assessment. Repeatable up to a maximum of 8 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of advisor and instructor. Repeatable to 8 credits. On demand.

HE 592. Internship in Higher Education. 1-8 Credits.

This is a professional practice experience in an administrative unit. May be repeated to a maximum of 8 credits. Prerequisites: Consent of the advisor and instructor. Repeatable to 8 credits. On demand.

HE 594. Readings in Higher Education. 1-4 Credits.

Designed primarily for advanced graduate students. May be repeated for different topics to a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: Consent of advisor and instructor. Repeatable to 9 credits. On demand.

HE 595. Higher Education Seminar. 1-9 Credits.

A seminar for advanced graduate students on a focused topic. Students will have significant responsibility for preparing and presenting papers and studies on the focus topic. May be repeated to a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: Consent of the instructor and advisor. Repeatable to 9 credits. S/U grading. On demand.

HE 597. Administrative Project in Higher Education. 1-4 Credits.

For advanced graduate students. Students will undertake an assignment from an administrator for a project that will be implemented once it is completed. Repeatable to a maximum of 4 credits. Prerequisites: Consent of advisor and instructor. Repeatable to 4 credits. On demand.

HE 598. Individual Research in Higher Education. 1-9 Credits.

Students design a research study, implement the research plan, and/or publish the results of the project. May be repeated to a maximum of 9 credits. Prerequisites: Consent of advisor and instructor. Repeatable to 9 credits.

HE 995. Scholarly Project. 2 Credits.

Prerequisite: Consent of advisor. On demand.

HE 996. Continuing Enrollment. 1-12 Credits.

Repeatable to a maximum of 48 credits. Prerequisite: Consent of the advisor. Repeatable. S/U grading.

HE 997. Independent Study. 2 Credits.

Prerequisite: Consent of the advisor.

HE 998. Thesis. 1-9 Credits.

Prerequisite: Consent of the advisor. Repeatable to 9 credits.

HE 999. Dissertation. 6-18 Credits.

Prerequisite: Consent of the advisor. Repeatable to 18 credits.

SPED Courses

SPED 500. Education of the Visually Impaired. 3 Credits.

A course which provides an overview of the field of visual impairment to include the following areas of emphases: History/Philosophy; Service-delivery models; medical, psychological and educational implications of partial vision or total blindness; curricula methods and materials; current issues/trends.

SPED 501. Diseases and Function of the Eye. 2 Credits.

A course which introduces students to: a) the structural parts of the eye and its functions; b) common ocular conditions and diseases and their implications for education; c) interpretation of medical eye examination reports; and d) special considerations for infant, school-age academic, multiply disable and adult populations.

SPED 502. Braille Reading and Writing. 2 Credits.

In this course students learn: 1) to read and write the literary code of grade 2 braille and 2) to teach the literary code of grade 2 braille to students of all ages.

SPED 503. Orientation and Mobility/Visually Impaired. 2 Credits.

This course introduces students to basic orientation and mobility techniques used by specialists when working with individuals with low vision and blindness. Concept development, kinesiology, tactile map construction, dog guides, electronic mobility devices and parental involvement are topics covered with respect to various populations (i.e. infants, schoolage academic children, multiply disabled children and adults).

SPED 504. Communication Media and Methods/Visually Impaired. 3 Credits.

This course provides an overview of the communication devices and adaptive technology used by the visually disabled. Students learn to read and write the braille codes for mathematics and music, do basic calculations on the abacus, brailler and talking calculator and gain familiarity with computers and software currently used in the field. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

SPED 505. Low Vision Assessment and Remediation. 2 Credits.

A course which focuses on children who have severe visual deficits but with proper training are able to utilize their vision for learning. Effects of low vision are studied with respect to psychological/sociological development, academic learning, skills of independent living, and vocational choice. Methods of assessing visual function are examined with emphasis on adaptions needed in the educational settings. Optical and non-optical aids are compared and evaluated. Prerequisite: T&L 315 or consent of instructor.

SPED 506. Introduction to Emotional Disorders. 3 Credits.

The historical perspective and the complexities of identification and characteristics of emotional disorders will be covered. Students will gain an understanding of service delivery models within a multisystems approach. F,S,SS.

SPED 507. Introduction to Intellectual Disabilities. 3 Credits.

The historical perspectives and the complexities of identification and characteristics of developmental/cognitive disabilities will be covered. Students will gain an understanding of service delivery models within a multi-systems approach. F,S,SS.

SPED 508. Introduction to Learning Disabilities. 3 Credits.

The historical perspective and the complexities of identification and characteristics of learning disabilities will be covered. Students will gain an understanding of service delivery models within a multisystems approach. F,S,SS.

SPED 509. IEP Development. 2 Credits.

This course is an introduction to the individualized education plan (IEP) process, including an understanding of how to develop and write effective IEPs for students with disabilities. In addition, the IEP template and process used by the state of North Dakota (i.e., TIENET) will be addressed.

SPED 510. Early Intervention for Children with Special Needs. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the field of Early Childhood Special Education, primarily for students interested in entering the field. Issues such as program design, parent involvement, identification, infant education, and effects of disabilities will be covered. F,S,SS.

SPED 511. Identification and Assessment of Young Children with Special Needs. 3 Credits.

A study of the principles and procedures for screening, identifying and evaluating young children with special needs. Emphasis will be placed on exposing students to available assessment instruments and providing opportunities for actual testing of preschoolers. Prerequisite: Admission to one of the master's programs in special education.

SPED 512. Methods and Materials for Preschool Children with Special Needs. 3 Credits.

A comprehensive study of curricula, program development and intervention strategies for disabled children ages birth to 6. Prerequisite: Admission to one of the master's programs in special education.

SPED 514. Intervention Strategies with Infants and Toddlers. 2 Credits.

This course provides for study into the unique needs of infants and toddlers with disabilities as well as the delivery of intervention services to the very young child with disabilities and his/her family.

SPED 515. Professional Development. 1 Credit.

This course will provide an orientation to the roles and responsibilities of being a resident teacher in special education. Restricted to resident teachers in special education.

SPED 521. Transition to Adult Life. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on education, personal and vocational transition issues for students with disabilities across all grade levels into adult life. Assessment and transition program planning will be covered along with interagency collaboration skills and career awareness.

SPED 522. Introduction to Gifted/Talented Education. 3 Credits.

Historical and evolutionary research, theories, and philosophies for understanding the developmental and social-emotional needs of the more able child from early childhood through adolescence in educational experiences. Characteristics of G/T learners in the intellectual, leadership, academic, and creative realms; asynchrony; stereotypes; comorbidities; issues surrounding the identification of G/T learners. Cultural and societal influences on the field; educational trends. Prerequisite: T&L 315 or permission of the instructor.

SPED 523. Assessment in Gifted/Talented Education. 3 Credits.

Formal and informal assessments of characteristics of G/T learners in the intellectual, leadership, academic, and creative realms for identification and qualification for educational programming; assessment of readiness and content mastery. Ongoing assessment, progress monitoring, and data interpretation skills will be practiced. Issues surrounding the identification of G/T learners, including misdiagnosis, stereotyping, and bias will be critically evaluated. Legal issues surrounding this area, and cultural influences on data sources will be explored. Prerequisite: T&L 315, and T&L 423 or SPED 551, or permission of the instructor.

SPED 524. Teaching Methods in Gifted/Talented Education. 3 Credits.

Methodological and pedagogical approaches for fulfilling the unique academic, intellectual, creative, social, and emotional needs of the more able child in the educational environment. Exploration and analysis of contributing research, theories, and philosophies for designing differentiated learning opportunities from early childhood through adolescence via multiple modes (i.e. Bloom's Taxonomy, Multiple Intelligence's, technologies, multicultural and creative materials, etc.); educational trends through curriculum design and the integration of formal and informal assessment data and national/state standards to create individualized learning goals through curriculum compacting, tiering, acceleration, academic planning, modifications, and mentorships. Exploration and analysis of curriculum models to suit various learning needs of the asynchronous child with multiple forms of exceptionality (LD, ED, ASD, ELL); legal, cultural, and stereotype issues affecting the implementation of enriched curriculum for the G/T child with comorbidities. Prerequisite: SPED 522.

SPED 528. Advanced Assistive Technology. 1 Credit.

This course covers the types and functions of assistive technology for students with disabilities across a variety of settings, e.g., home, schools and community. Assistive technology assessment and a working knowledge of best practices of assistive technology in the lives of students will be addressed. Identification of funding sources and assistive technology resources will also be covered.

SPED 551. Advanced Assessment/Special Needs Students. 3 Credits.

Theory and practice of assessment, including formal and informal procedures for screening, identification and assessment of students with disabilities. Practical assignment included. Prerequisite: Admission to one of the master's programs in special education. F,S,SS.

SPED 552. Inclusive Methods. 3 Credits.

The study of a variety of methods and materials for teaching and assessing children and youth with learning and behavior problems in the general education classroom.

SPED 554. Advanced Methods: Learning Disabilities. 3 Credits.

The study of specific strategies, methods, and materials for working with students with learning disabilities. Prerequisite: Admission to one of the master's programs in special education.

SPED 555. Advanced Methods: Emotionally Disturbed. 3 Credits.

The study of specific strategies, methods, and materials for working with students with emotional/behavioral disorders. Prerequisite: Admission to one of the master's programs in special education.

SPED 556. Advanced Methods: Intellectual Disabilties. 3 Credits.

This course is a masters level methods course designed for professionals seeking to extend their skills in the areas of instruction, functional (life skills) curriculum, program and curriculum development, and functional behavioral analysis for working with students with moderate to severe intellectual disabilities. Prerequisites: Graduate status and admission to one of the master's programs in special education. F,S,SS.

SPED 557. Progress Monitoring/Special Needs Students. 3 Credits.

This course covers all aspects of progress monitoring including what it is, how it works, the benefits of progress monitoring, various ways and strategies for conducting progress monitoring and how it functions in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model. Students will learn how to track students in reading, math, and written language by collecting data and then using that data to measure student progress and in instructional decision-making. The strongest research-based strategy for progress monitoring, curriculum-based measurement, will be covered in depth. Prerequisite: Admission to one of the master's programs in special education. F,S,SS.

SPED 558. Response to Intervention. 2 Credits.

This course will address common elements of Response to Intervention (RTI) including definition, components of successful RTI models, establishing RTI teams and building capacity for school-wide RTI implementation, the use of standard protocol in RTI implementation, monitoring progress in academics and behavior within RTI models, understanding guidelines for problem-solving/decision making in RTI, as well as the future direction of RTI. F,SS.

SPED 560. Introduction to Autistic Spectrum Disorder. 3 Credits.

This is the introductory course in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses focusing on autistic spectrum disorder. Its central purpose is to encourage parents and caregivers of individuals with autistic spectrum disorder to engage in reflective thinking about and critical analysis of the many and varied issues, e.g., identification, educational placement, effective treatments, vocational training, related to the provision of quality lifelong supports for these individuals. Prerequisites: Completed degree from a related field of study, or seniors who have completed T&L 315, and are completing an undergrad degree from a related field of study (see dept for approval). F,S,SS.

SPED 561. Methods for Autistic Spectrum Disorder. 3 Credits.

This is a required course in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses focusing on autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Its central purpose is to address commonly implemented intervention strategies, particularly those considered to be evidence based or research supported in the field of ASD. This course examines the current literature base supporting various interventions and strategies with a focus on matching the needs and strengths of individuals with ASD to the most appropriate intervention method based on data driven practice and research support for a particular intervention. Prerequisite or corequisite: SPED 560. F,S,SS.

SPED 562. Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Supports Across the Lifespan. 3 Credits.

This course is in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses focusing on autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Issues related to parental reactions to diagnosis, stressors at home and school, strategies for empowering families, transitional situations for individuals with ASD, transitions to jobs and college, and legal issues will be explored. The central purpose of the course is threefold: a) to provide current information related to the chronic stressors experienced by caregivers for and family members of persons with ASD, b) to provide current information regarding career/vocational options related to transition from high school through adult life, e.g., young adults, middle-aged adults, older adults, and c) to provide current information regarding legal issues related to the provision of lifelong supports for persons with ASD. Prerequisite: Completed degree from a related field of study. Prerequisites or corequisites: SPED 560 and SPED 561. F,S.

SPED 563. Autistic Spectrum Disorder:Medical Issues and Trends. 3 Credits.

This course is in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses focusing on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this course is to examine the historical perspective and complexities of the role of medicine and medically oriented interventions for individuals with ASD. Issues will be explored related to conducting wellness examinations, current and future medication treatments, genetics, collaboration, and resources. Prerequisite: A completed degree from a related field of study. Prerequisites or corequisites: SPED 560 and SPED 561. F,S.

SPED 564. Structured Teaching. 2 Credits.

This is an elective course in the sequence of interdisciplinary courses focusing on autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Its central purpose is to encourage parents and caregivers of individuals with ASD to engage in reflective thinking about and critical analysis of this educational approach for these persons. Prerequisites or corequisites: SPED 560 and SPED 561.

SPED 565. Methods for Students with Asperger Syndrome. 3 Credits.

This course is in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses focusing on autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), specifically focusing on those individuals with diagnoses or high functioning autism, Aspergers, and ASD with lower levels of support needed. The purpose of this course is to equip individuals interacting and working with people with high functioning ASD the pertinent background knowledge and experience with the diagnosis and characteristics to effectively implement assessments, functional analysis, various methods and practices, and transition planning to support individuals with ASD and their families. Prerequisite: A completed degree from a related field of study. Prerequisites or corequisites: SPED 560 and SPED 561. SS.

SPED 566. Autistic Spectrum Disorder Intensive Early Intervention. 3 Credits.

This is an elective course in the sequence of interdisciplinary courses focusing on children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) birth to age six. Topics addressed will include basic characteristics of children with ASD birth to age six, the developmental implications for these children and their families, and research-supported early interventions utilizing a family-centered approach with an emphasis on natural learning opportunities. Prerequisite: A completed degree from a related field of study. F,SS.

SPED 567. ASD Assessment. 3 Credits.

This course is a required course in a sequence of interdisciplinary courses focusing on autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). This course will address the entire process of program planning for students with ASD including screening, evaluative assessment, ongoing assessment, using assessment to guide intervention planning, and monitoring progress. Students will explore a variety of methods and tools commonly used with individuals with ASD; specifically standardized assessments, checklists, rating scales, structured observation tools, and curricular based assessments. Its central focus is on assessing the ongoing needs and strengths of individuals with ASD in order to plan successful interventions in further differentiating instruction. Prerequisite: SPED 560. Corequisite: SPED 561. F,S,SS.

SPED 578. Behavior Management for Special Needs Students. 3 Credits.

The study of a variety of effective behavior management and assessment techniques appropriate to the needs of children and youth with special needs. Topics include procedures to increase self-awareness, self-management, self-control, self-reliance, self-esteem, and assessment procedures and techniques for determining behavioral needs. Prerequisite: Admission to one of the master's programs in special education.

SPED 580. Practicum: Special Education. 1-4 Credits.

Practicum in the study of children and adolescents with disabilities in school and related settings. May be repeated to 8 credits. Repeatable to 8 credits.

SPED 583. Internship: Autism Spectrum Disorders. 1-6 Credits.

This is a culminating experience for students in the area of autism spectrum disorders. This course is designed for students to synthesize previously learned information from coursework as they apply and implement their knowledge and skills through written products and classroom performance. Prerequisites: SPED 560, SPED 561, and consent of the instructor. Repeatable to 6 credits.

SPED 584. Internship: Gifted/Talented. 1-6 Credits.

This is a culminating experience for students in the area of gifted/talented. This course is designed for students to synthesize previously learned information from coursework as they apply and implement their knowledge and skills through written products and classroom performance. Prerequisites: SPED 522, SPED 523, and SPED 524, or consent of the instructor. Repeatable to 6 credits.

SPED 585. Internship: Visual Impairment. 1-6 Credits.

This is a culminating experience for students who are seeking licensure or an endorsement in the area of visual impairment. This course is designed for students to synthesize previously learned information from coursework as they apply and implement their knowledge and skills through written products and classroom performance. Repeatable up to 6 credits maximum. Prerequisites: SPED 500, SPED 501, SPED 502, and consent of the instructor. Repeatable to 6 credits. F,S,SS.

SPED 586. Internship: Emotional Disturbance. 1-6 Credits.

This is a culminating experience for students in the area of emotional disburbance. This course is designed for students to synthesize previously learned information from coursework as they apply and implement their knowledge and skills through written products and classroom performance. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Repeatable to 6 credits.

SPED 587. Internship: Intellectual Disabilities. 1-6 Credits.

This is a culminating experience for students in the area of Intellectual disabilities. This course is designed for students to synthesize previously learned information from coursework as they apply and implement their knowledge and skills through written products and classroom performance. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Repeatable to 6 credits. F,S,SS.

SPED 588. Internship: Learning Disabilities. 1-6 Credits.

This is a culminating experience for students in the area of learning disabilities. This course is designed for students to synthesize previously learned information from coursework as they apply and implement their knowledge and skills through written products and classroom performance. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Repeatable to 6 credits.

SPED 589. Internship: Early Childhood Special Education. 1-4 Credits.

This is a culminating experience for students who are seeking licensure or an endorsement in the area of early childhood special education. This course is designed for students to synthesize previously learned information from coursework as they apply and implement their knowledge and skills through written products and classroom performance. Prerequisites: SPED 510, SPED 511 and SPED 512, and consent of the instructor. Repeatable to 4 credits.

SPED 590. Special Topics in Special Education. 1-4 Credits.

Exploration of special topics in the study of special education. May be repeated for different topics. Repeatable to 30 credits.

SPED 591. Readings: Special Education. 1-4 Credits.

Designed primarily for advanced graduate students. May be repeated for different topics. Repeatable. F,S,SS.

SPED 593. Independent Project: Special Education. 1-4 Credits.

Designed primarily for advanced graduate students. May be repeated for different topics. Prerequisites: Consent of advisor and Instructor. Repeatable.

SPED 995. Scholarly Project. 2 Credits.

The scholarly project demonstrates critical analysis and application of information and experiences gained throughout the program of study. The project allows students to demonstrate scholarly skills in an integrated manner that is directly related to their roles as teachers, program evaluators, and action researchers. The scholarly project must be approved by the student's advisor. F,S,SS.

T&L Courses

T&L 513. Linguistics for ELL Teachers. 3 Credits.

This course introduces the complexities of human language through the study of phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. Additional topis addressed include the brain and language, history of the English language, psycholinguistics, writing systems and language in social contexts. F,S,SS.

T&L 514. Introduction to Multilingual Education. 3 Credits.

This course explores language education models, programs and policies with an emphasis on English language learners (ELLs). Political, legal, historical, and cultural contexts of multilingual education will be discussed with a focus on both U.S. and global challenges.

T&L 515. Middle School Curriculum. 3 Credits.

This course examines the middle school curriculum and instructional strategies as well as the needs of early adolescents. The course focuses on the roles teachers play in incorporating a guided, interdisciplinary, collaborative team approach. The studies include the components of curriculum teaming, advisory, exploration, learning communities) and instruction (differentiation, cooperative learning, learning styles, instructional strategies) incorporated in middle schools.

T&L 516. Philosophy and Foundations of Middle School Education. 3 Credits.

This course examines the historical and philosophical background of middle level education. The focus is on the roles teachers/administrators play in incorporating this guided, interdisciplinary, collaborative team approach that assists students during these fundamentally transformative years. The course looks at the philosophical aspect of the curriculum and instructional component. The studies explore contemporary issues associated with the middle school as well as the adaptations necessary for special circumstances affiliated with middle schools.

T&L 518. Science in the Elementary School. 3 Credits.

A study of current trends and practices associated with teaching and assessing inquiry-based science in elementary classrooms.

T&L 519. Social Studies in the Elementary School. 3 Credits.

A study of current trends and practices associated with teaching and assessing social studies in elementary classrooms.

T&L 520. Curriculum and Instruction in the Elementary School. 4 Credits.

A study of processes for planning, implementing, and evaluating curriculum and improving instruction in elementary schools.

T&L 521. Differentiated Instruction. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the principles of differentiated instruction. Topics of study include: brain-based learning, responsive instructional and assessment strategies, linking curriculum standards to learner needs, organizing and managing a differentiated classroom, and relevant resources for implementation.

T&L 522. Mathematics in the Elementary School. 3 Credits.

A study of current trends and practices associated with teaching and assessing inquiry-based math in elementary classrooms.

T&L 523. Literacy Instruction for English Language Learners. 3 Credits.

This course addresses the foundations of teaching English language and literacy to English LanLanguage Learners (ELLs) and includes study of various approaches to ELL/bilingual education, methods of instruction, assessment of English language proficiency, and strategies to make content learning comprehensible for ELLs. Emphasis will be placed on praxis and current research in the field.

T&L 524. Reading in the Content Areas. 2 Credits.

How and why reading should be taught in the content areas (i.e. Social Studies, Science, Mathematics, etc.). Research studies in the field of content reading and a variety of instructional practices are reviewed.

T&L 525. Writing in the Classroom. 3 Credits.

This course examines writing as a process that is developmental, cultural, social, and individual. Emphasis is on effective implementation of the essential structures of writing workshop and on monitoring and assessing writers' growth.

T&L 526. Play in Development and Early Childhood Education. 3 Credits.

This course explores the role of play in cognitive, physical and social-emotional development, and the way in which play is incorporated into educational and other programmatic settings. Students will explore how assessment of play indicates a child's development, and they will use assessment to promote Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP) for PreK-Grade 3 (ages 3-8) learners.

T&L 527. Curricular Foundations in Early Childhood Education. 3 Credits.

This course examines the historical, philosophical, cultural, race, class, and gender influences on curriculum in early childhood, including the philosophy and mission of the Department of Teaching and Learning.

T&L 528. Children's Literature in the Classroom. 3 Credits.

This course is a study of children's literature and literary criticism which serves as the foundation for examining teaching methods that develop children's engagement with literature and promote reading achievement.

T&L 529. Language Development & Cognition in Children. 3 Credits.

This course provides foundational information about language and cognitive development in children. The course content will also analyze typical and atypical language and cognitive development. The focus of the course will include children birth to age eight. .

T&L 530. Foundations of Reading Instruction. 3-4 Credits.

This course focuses on the relationship between reading theory, research, contemporary issues and instructional practice. Emphasis is placed on strategic systems related to effective reading, instructional approaches that support the development of these strategic systems and assessment as collecting evidence of effective reading behaviors.

T&L 531. Early Literacy Development and Instruction. 3 Credits.

A study of early literacy processes including phonemic and print awareness, word recognition, comprehension, and writing. Emphasis is on reviewing current research and theory, assessment and instruction practices, and bridging language and literacy development in literacy rich environments.

T&L 533. Reading in the Secondary School. 2 Credits.

Development of reading-study skills in the content subject areas and reading strategy development.

T&L 534. Basic Reading Diagnosis and Remediation. 2 Credits.

Focuses on common causes of reading disability, methods of diagnosis, and corrective reading programs in the classroom. Corequisite: T&L 530.

T&L 535. Advanced Reading/Language Arts Diagnosis and Remediation. 2 Credits.

Analysis of interrelationships of learning difficulties in language arts areas and procedures for remediation. Prerequisites: T&L 530 and 534.

T&L 536. Teaching and Supervision of Elementary Language Arts. 3 Credits.

Considers the objectives of the elementary language arts program, methods of instruction, and recent curricular trends. Recent research is read and critiqued.

T&L 537. ELL Methods and Materials. 3 Credits.

This course explores current methods and materials in ELL education, with a focus on teaching academic language and sheltered content instruction. F,S,SS.

T&L 538. Supervision of Student Teaching. 2 Credits.

For supervisors and directors of student teaching in colleges and cooperating schools. Principles and practices on how to provide the most beneficial experiences for student teachers.

T&L 539. College Teaching. 3 Credits.

Explores learning styles and teaching styles, the components and responsibilities involved in college teaching, methods of teaching and motivating students, and current issues related to instruction in the college classroom.

T&L 540. Theory and Philosophies of Curriculum in Schools. 3 Credits.

This course explores the historical development of the K-12 curriculum, the philosophical and theoretical aspects applied to curriculum, and the social conditions that impact curriculum.

T&L 541. History of Higher Education in the United States. 3 Credits.

Study of major events and people shaping higher education in the U.S. Role, philosophy, and organization of institutions of higher education discussed.

T&L 542. Models of Teaching. 3 Credits.

This course focuses on various models of teaching: social interaction, information-processing, inquiry and behavioral. The purpose of the course is to provide teachers with a variety of instructional models related to meaningful learning experiences for students.

T&L 543. Scholarly Writing. 3 Credits.

Designed to assist students with learning the art of scholarly writing, this course will aid students in designing, formatting, and completing research-based and other scholarly writing projects, as well as understanding the rules and norms of academic publishing.

T&L 544. Assessment in Higher Education. 3 Credits.

A wide range of assessment issues in higher education will be explored. This includes course, program, and institutional assessment as well as classroom assessment techniques. Students will examine and understand the assessment process.

T&L 545. Adult Learners. 3 Credits.

This course will cover theories of adult development, current research on adult learners, ways of assessing the needs and interests of adult learners, and ways of creating environments in which adult learners can thrive.

T&L 546. College Students with Special Needs. 3 Credits.

This course explores the range of special needs college students bring to campus and how faculty, staff, and administrators might appropriately meet those needs. Prerequisite: Admission to the School of Graduate Studies or instructor permission. S.

T&L 547. Technology in Higher Education. 3 Credits.

Students will examine the various uses and integration of technology and media in higher education by faculty in their attempt to engage learners with each other, the course content, and with instructors.

T&L 548. The Professoriate. 3 Credits.

This course is a study of the development of the American professoriate by way of historical, scholarly, popular, and contemporary perspectives. It also examines the transition of new faculty members to their initial academic appointment.

T&L 549. Seminar. 1-4 Credits.

The seminar will focus on a specific topic relating to teaching and learning. The specific content will vary depending upon student needs and faculty resources. Repeatable. S/U grading.

T&L 550. Assessment and Evaluation in ELL Education. 3 Credits.

This course combines readings and theoretical discussion of assessment with hands-on experience in assessing ELLs. Students will learn how to use a variety of formal and informal assessments with a focus on how to use assessment data in planning instruction. Topics will include classroom-based assessments, language proficiency testing, testing accommodations for ELLs, and assessment of ELLs for special education and gifted education, and ELL program evaluation.

T&L 551. Second Language Acquisition for ELL Teachrs. 3 Credits.

This course will explore the socio- and psycho-linguisitic aspects of interlanguage by studying the theories and research of first and second language acquisition. Students will examine the nature of learners and their individual differences during the stages of language development, with a focus on children and K-12 classrooms.

T&L 553. Collaborative Relationships: Home, School and Community. 3 Credits.

A course appropriate for anyone working with families, early childhood educators, general educators, special educators, related service personnel, administrators and outside agency personnel. Topics covered include: (1) the various models of collaboration and consultation and the stages of each; (2) communication skills; (3) problem-solving; (4) conflict management; (5) diverse perspectives; (6) information collection procedures; (7) supervisory skills; (8) family characteristics and structure across the lifespan; (9) family focused intervention; (10) school choices; and (11) school issues such as poverty, domestic violence, teasing, bullying, and school violence.

T&L 558. Middle School Science and Engineering Lab1:Solids. 2 Credits.

T&L 559A. MS Sci.Eng-2: Solids. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: T&L 558, admission to Graduate School, ND Teacher licensure and Admission to program "Improving Math and Science Literacy of Middle and High School Students of North Dakota Through Teacher-Faculty Partnerships".

T&L 559B. MS Sci.Eng-2: Solids. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: T&L 558, admission to Graduate School, ND Teacher licensure and Admission to program "Improving Math and Science Literacy of Middle and High School Students of North Dakota Through Teacher-Faculty Partnerships".

T&L 566. Brain in Memory and Learning. 3 Credits.

Prerequisite: Admissions to Grad School.

T&L 567. Language Structure and Analysis for ELL Teachers. 3 Credits.

This course explores the grammatical and discourse structures of the modern English language, analysis of grammar and discourse with a focus on specific problem areas for ELLs, and pedagogical implications for English language development.

T&L 568. Research and Advocacy in TESOL. 3 Credits.

This course prepares teachers to both understand and conduct research in TESOL. Emphasis will be placed on using research data to advocate for changes and improvement in ELL education.

T&L 569. Action Research. 3 Credits.

The study of the philosophy and methods of action research. Emphasis is focused on analysis of and reflection on one's teaching for the purpose of improvements in student learning. Prerequisite: Graduate status. S.

T&L 571. Teacher Education. 3 Credits.

Practices, issues, and trends in the design and implementation and assessment of programs for the preparation and development of K-12 teachers.

T&L 572. Teacher Education: Focus on the Learner. 3 Credits.

The study of teacher education in relation to the lives of P-12 students. This course includes the examination of children and their lives through aspects of race, religion, socioeconomics, linguistics and age, and considers educational implications for preservice and inservice teachers.

T&L 573. Middle School Science and Engineering Lab2:Liq/Gas. 2 Credits.

T&L 574. MS Sci.Eng-4: Liquid/Gas. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: T&L 573, admission to Graduate School, ND Teacher licensure and Admission to program "Improving Math and Science Literacy of Middle and High School Students of North Dakota Through Teacher-Faculty Partnerships".

T&L 575. Middle School Science and Engineering Lab3:Mot/Elec. 2 Credits.

T&L 576A. MS Sci.Eng.-6:Motion/Electric. 3 Credits.

Prerequisites: T&L 575, admission to Graduate School, ND Teacher Licensure and employment as a teacher in a ND school.

T&L 576B. MS Sci.Eng.-6:Motion/Electric. 3 Credits.

Prerequisite: T&L 576A.

T&L 577. Assessment of Learning. 3 Credits.

This course addresses the theory and practice of assessment, specifically the process of gathering and discussing information from multiple and diverse sources in order to develop a deep understanding of what students know, understand, and can do with their knowledge as a result of educational experiences.

T&L 579. Classroom Based Inquiry. 3 Credits.

Concepts learned in T&L 569 will be looked at in-depth and theoretical constructs such as Living Theory, Self Study, and Critical Theory constructs will be studied. Students plan and conduct an in-depth inquiry project within a school setting, complete the associated IRB, and create and academic poster and/or prepare a proposal of the Inquiry project for a professional setting. Prerequisites: T&L graduate status and T&L 569; or by permission of instructor. F,S.

T&L 580. Practicum in Schools. 1-4 Credits.

Practicum in study of desirable school practices, observations in nearby schools, and application of research findings in solving practical problems. Prerequisites: Appropriate foundational and major area courses, and consent of the instructor and advisor. Repeatable.

T&L 581. Resident Internship. 4 Credits.

A full-time, year-long internship experience conducted in a cooperating school district. Interns are assigned as members of instructional teams with full responsibility for a portion of the cooperating school's instructional program. Prerequisites: Participation in the summer program prior to the internship and teaching licensure (see dept for approval).

T&L 582. Resident Internship. 4 Credits.

A full-time, year-long internship experience conducted in a cooperating school district. Interns are assigned as members of instructional teams with full responsibility for a portion of the cooperating school's instructional program. Prerequisites: Participation in the summer program prior to the internship and teaching licensure (see dept for approval).

T&L 583. Reading Clinic. 2 Credits.

Supervised clinic practicum in diagnosis of reading difficulties, report writing, and instruction. Includes school consultations. Corequisite: T&L 534.

T&L 584. Internship in Education. 1-8 Credits.

This is a culminating experience primarily for Sixth year and Doctoral students. The internships will be identified in one of the following sub-areas: (A) Educational Administration, (B) Special Education, (C) Curriculum, (D) Educational Research, or (E) Teacher Education. Prerequisites: Appropriate foundational, cognate, and major area coursework and consent of advisor and instructor. Repeatable.

T&L 589. Professional Development: Resident Teacher Program. 2 Credits.

This field-based experience provides mentoring and coaching, translates baccalaureate theory and research into practice, and requires active participation in the school placement and classroom setting. Issues and topics relevant to first year teachers and graduate education are emphasized through field work and discussions. Prerequisite: Admission into the Elementary Education Resident Teacher Program. SS.

T&L 590. Special Topics. 1-4 Credits.

Exploration of special topics in the study of education not regularly included in available course offerings. May be repeated for different topics. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor or advisor. Repeatable.

T&L 591. Readings in Education. 1-4 Credits.

Designed primarily for advanced graduate students. May be repeated for different topics. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and advisor. Repeatable.

T&L 593. Independent Projects. 1-4 Credits.

Repeatable.

T&L 596. Individual Research in Education. 1-4 Credits.

Prerequisite: Consent of instructor and advisor. Repeatable.

T&L 995. Scholarly Project. 2 Credits.

The scholarly project demonstrates critical analysis and application of information and experiences gained throughout the program of study. The project allows students to demonstrate scholarly skills in an integrated manner that is directly related to their roles as teachers, program evaluators, and action researchers. The scholarly project must be approved by the student's adviser.

T&L 996. Continuing Enrollment. 1-12 Credits.

Repeatable. S/U grading.

T&L 997. Independent Study. 2 Credits.

T&L 998. Thesis. 1-9 Credits.

Repeatable to 9 credits.

T&L 999. Dissertation. 1-15 Credits.

Repeatable to 15 credits.


Undergraduate Courses for Graduate Credit

T&L 322. Administration and Leadership in Early Childhood Education. 3 Credits.

An investigation of patterns of administration, curriculum organization, spatial resources, and staffing in early childhood settings, serving children 0-8 years old. Topics include federal and state laws and emerging trends in preschool and primary education in the state, region, and nation. Sixteen (16) hours of field experience. Prerequisite: Admission to the Teacher Education program. S.

T&L 422. Development of the Gifted and Talented. 2 Credits.

Research and theory for understanding the development needs of the more able child in early childhood and in educational experiences. S.

T&L 423. Assessment Program Planning/Special Needs Students. 3 Credits.

A study of the principles and practices of: (1) obtaining diagnostic information on school-related problems of a student; (2) assimilating this information and prescribing appropriate alterations based on continuous measurement data. Prerequisites: T&L 315 and T&L 319. F,S.

T&L 493. Workshop. 1-4 Credits.

Special problems in Special Education; consideration of special problems of concern to the Special Education teacher and other educators. Repeatable to 8 credits. F,S.

Office of the Registrar

Tel: 701.777.2711
1.800.CALL.UND
Fax: 701.777.2696

Twamley Hall Room 201
264 Centennial Drive Stop 8382
Grand Forks, ND 58202-8382